Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics in n=670 participants stratified by sCRF category

CharacteristicLow sCRF (n=128)†Moderate sCRF (n=317)Higher sCRF (n=225)‡p Value
Age (years)64 (9.7)61 (8.7)55 (8.6)<0.0005
Sex, male (%)7977840.196
Elderly (age >75 years) (%)1230.0<0.0005
Married/living with partner (%)7682830.221
Previous MI (%)3132420.029
Previous CABG (%)4346350.052
Previous PCI (%)1314160.575
Previous Angina (%)2729200.050
Diabetes mellitus (%)22145<0.0005
Hypertension (%)1116140.461
Premature family history (%)3937380.886
Chronic heart failure (%)320.40.140
COPD (%)0.8210.804
Peripheral vascular disease (%)30.90.40.071
Valvular disease (%)10540.053
Cerebrovascular disease (%)0.010.40.305
BMI >30 (kg/m2) (%)3532200.002
Waist circumference (cm)100 (14)98 (12)95 (10)<0.0005
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)0.508
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.3 (1.1)5.6 (1.2)5.5 (1.1)0.092
TC/HDL ratio4.8 (1.7)4.9 (1.5)4.8 (1.5)0.828
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.3 (1.1)3.5 (1.1)3.5 (1.0)0.198
Triglycerides (mmol/L) (LOG10)1.51.61.50.212
Previous (<10 years/current smoker) (%)3635400.467
Physically inactive (%)412920<0.0005
SBP rest (mm Hg)144 (21)146 (22)138 (20)<0.0005
DBP rest (mm Hg)83 (11)86 (12)86 (11)0.399
HR Rest (bpm)75 (16)72 (16)63 (13)0.007
ACE Inhibitor (%)2422160.170
Antiplatelet therapy (%)6875770.138
β-Blocker (%)3439520.002
Diuretic (%)40259<0.0005
Statin (%)4137390.630
Exercise test characteristics
 Test time (min), median (IQR)6 (4–6)8 (8–10)12 (12–14)<0.0005
 Power output (Watts)71 (16)106 (17)145 (10)<0.0005
 Exercise mode (treadmill) (%)8789890.794
 Peak HR (% APMHR)94 (14)95 (9)92 (8)0.008
 Peak HR β-blocked (% APMHR)92 (21)93 (15)95 (12)0.219
 Peak RPE14 (1.8)15 (1.7)15 (1.7)<0.0005
 Peak RPE (β-blocked)14 (1.7)16 (1.4)15 (1.5)<0.0005
 Estimated METs, median (IQR)5 (3.7–5)6.1 (6.1–7)8.3 (8.3–9.6)<0.0005
 Positive exercise test (ECG) (%)21135<0.0005
  • Results presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise stated.

  • †Entry sCRF level <6 METs (men) and <5 METs (women).

  • ‡Entry sCRF level ≥8 METs and ≥7 METs (women).

  • APMHR, age-predicted maximum heart rate; BMI, body mass index; bpm, beats per minute; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ECG, electrocardiogram; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HR, heart rate; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; METs, metabolic equivalents; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC/HDL, total cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio.