Table 1

Description and dose of implementation strategies and intervention components

Implementation strategies
1. School championsRCT:
2× teachers/school

2× teachers/school
In both the RCT and dissemination phases, 2 school champions from each school will be identified and recruited to act as organisers at each of the study schools. These teachers will liaise with the research team to recruit students, organise study assessments. In the dissemination phase, if only 1 teacher from a school participates in the professional learning workshop, only 1 school champion will be recruited.
2. Professional learning workshop for teachersRCT:
1× workshop

1× workshop
Teachers will be invited to attend a 1 day professional development workshop in the RCT phase. Professional learning will be provided for two PE and two non-PE teachers (2 male and 2 female) from each intervention school in the RCT. As an incentive for participation, the teacher workshop will be certified with the Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards (BOSTES), the professional body responsible for teacher certification and professional learning accreditation within the NSW Government schooling system. The workshop will address all aspects of NEAT and ATLAS interventions including: (1) teacher roles and expectations; (2) intervention components; (3) introduction to RT and safety implications; and (4) philosophy of the programmes, including the gender-targeting strategies and explanation of the ‘SAAFE’ teaching principles.60 In the dissemination phase, NSW Department of Education staff members will be trained to deliver the workshop and 2 teachers (1 male and 1 female) from each school will be invited to participate. However, schools may still participate in the dissemination phase if only 1 teacher attends the professional learning workshop.
3. Implementation handbook, fitness equipment and session resourcesRCT:
2× each school

2× each school (no fitness equipment except on request)
In the RCT phase, each school will be provided with two facilitator handbooks, two sets of 67 exercise circuit cards and two fitness equipment packs. Valued at ∼$1500 AUD each, the equipment packs will each include: 15 Gymstick resistance band devices, 5× skipping ropes, 5× sets of boxing gloves and focus pads, 2× agility ladders, and 1× suspension strap. In the dissemination phase, each school will be provided with the facilitator handbooks and exercise circuit cards only. However, basic fitness equipment packs worth $300 AUD (including 5 Gymstick resistance band devices), will be provided by the NSW Department of Education School Sport Unit on request.
4. Session observation and feedbackRCT:
4× each school

1× teacher
In the RCT phase, the research team will observe two NEAT and ATLAS sessions at each intervention school using a structured observation checklist. The checklist will be used to assess intervention fidelity and provide feedback to teachers. Fidelity will be assessed as compliance with the proposed session structure: (1) warm-up; (2) RT skill development; (3) 7 min High Intensity Resistance Training workout; (4) student choice of boxing circuit, Yoga/Pilates activity, or modified ball game; (5) Cool down. Using this checklist, supportive and motivational feedback will also be given to teachers regarding their application of the SAAFE teaching principles during session delivery.60
Intervention componentsRCT and dissemination
1. Student interactive seminar1× 30 min (week 1)The seminar will be delivered by teachers and provide key information regarding the programme components and behavioural messages, including current recommendations for youth physical activity, screen-time, resistance training and nutrition. It will also provide an overview of the smartphone app functions. The student seminar has been designed to be engaging with the integration of videos and websites, student quizzes and opportunities for student input and discussion.
2. Structured physical activity sessions10× ∼90 min (weeks 1–10)Sessions will be delivered by trained teachers at the study schools and will follow a uniform structure previously designed by the research team. Activities will include bodyweight and elastic tubing resistance training, flexibility-based, aerobic-based and strength-based activities, high-intensity fitness challenges and modified ball games. Behavioural messages will be reinforced by teachers throughout the sessions.
3. Lunch-time fitness sessions5×20 min (weeks 6–10)Students will participate in self-directed workouts during lunch-time and will be provided with opportunities to demonstrate leadership skills by organising and running these sessions under the supervision of teachers. Teachers will be asked to facilitate a minimum of 5 lunch-time sessions over the 10-week intervention period, but will be encouraged to facilitate additional lunch-time sessions if possible.
4. Web-based smartphone app1× ATLAS app
1× NEAT app (weeks 1–10)
The NEAT and ATLAS apps will be available on iOS, Android and Windows platforms, and are also compatible for use on a personal computer. The apps include: (1) an exercise library including GIF animated images and descriptions of exercises; (2) descriptions of 7 min high intensity resistance training workouts of varying intensities with built-in count-down timer and option for entering individual results; (3) self-monitoring function for recording and reviewing physical activity; (4) tailored motivational messaging via twice-weekly emails to reinforce the five behavioural messages; (5) goal setting to promote participation in MVPA; and (6) the Resistance Training Skills Battery61 checklist for evaluating and improving resistance training movement skill competency.
  • ATLAS, Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time; AUD, Australian dollars; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity; NEAT, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teens; NSW, New South Wales; PE, physical education; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SAAFE, Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair and Enjoyable.