Table 4

Crude and adjusted levels of cardiometabolic parameters according to alcoholic beverage preference of 1653 participants from the NQplus study

Alcoholic beverage preference
BeerWineSpirit/no preferenceNon-consumer
%13432915
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg
 Crude130 (1.0)124 (0.6)*129 (0.7)**122 (1.0)*,**,***
 Adjusted128 (0.9)125 (0.5)*127 (0.6)125 (0.9)*
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg
 Crude76 (0.7)74 (0.4)*76 (0.5)**73 (0.6)*,***
 Adjusted75 (0.7)74 (0.4)75 (0.4)*74 (0.6)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L
 Crude5.23 (0.07)5.54 (0.04)*5.29 (0.05)**5.14 (0.07)**
 Adjusted5.37 (0.07)5.43 (0.04)5.30 (0.05)**5.26 (0.07)**
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L
 Crude1.40 (0.03)1.70 (0.02)*1.47 (0.02)*,**1.53 (0.03)*,**
 Adjusted1.55 (0.03)1.62 (0.02)*1.54 (0.02)**1.48 (0.03)**
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L
 Crude3.20 (0.06)3.32 (0.04)3.24 (0.04)3.09 (0.06)**
 Adjusted3.21 (0.06)3.29 (0.04)3.20 (0.04)3.24 (0.06)
Triglycerides, mmol/L
 Crude1.43 (0.06)1.14 (0.03)*1.28 (0.04)*,**1.16 (0.05)*
 Adjusted1.38 (0.06)1.16 (0.03)*1.23 (0.04)*1.22 (0.05)*
HbA1c, mmol/L
 Crude35.9 (0.3)36.2 (0.2)36.5 (0.2)36.2 (0.3)
 Adjusted36.5 (0.3)35.9 (0.2)36.4 (0.2)**36.6 (0.3)**
Albumin, g/L
 Crude45.8 (0.2)44.9 (0.1)*45.4 (0.1)**45.0 (0.2)*
 Adjusted45.3 (0.2)45.2 (0.1)45.2 (0.1)44.9 (0.2)
Alanine aminotransferase, U/L
 Crude31.9 (1.0)25.1 (0.6)*29.0 (0.7)*,**24.4 (1.0)*,***
 Adjusted29.3 (1.0)26.5 (0.6)*27.4 (0.7)25.6 (0.9)*
Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L
 Crude23.1 (0.6)22.6 (0.3)23.1 (0.4)21.6 (0.6)*,***
 Adjusted23.1 (0.6)22.6 (0.3)22.8 (0.4)22.1 (0.6)
γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, U/L
 Crude30.5 (1.8)24.0 (1.0)*26.2 (1.2)*20.7 (1.7)*,***
 Adjusted28.0 (1.8)25.3 (1.0)24.2 (1.2)22.5 (1.7)*
Creatinine, µmol/L
 Crude82.7 (0.9)74.7 (0.5)*80.5 (0.6)*,**72.7 (0.9)*,**,***
 Adjusted77.5 (0.8)77.1 (0.4)77.4 (0.5)76.5 (0.7)
Uric acid, mmol/L
 Crude0.35 (0.005)0.30 (0.003)*0.33 (0.003)*,**0.28 (0.005)*,**,***
 Adjusted0.32 (0.004)0.31 (0.002)*0.31 (0.003)*0.29 (0.004)*,**,***
  • *p<0.05 vs beer preference, **p<0.05 vs wine preference, and ***p<0.05 vs spirit or no preference from a t-test for differences of least squares means.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, education, birth country, employment status, and prevalent diseases.

  • HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; NQplus, The Nutrition Questionnaires plus.