Table 2

Stratified analyses of flavonoid intake and stroke risk

Heterogeneity test
GroupNo. of studiesRR (95% CI)χ2p ValueI2, %p Value of pooled effect
Overall studies
 Fatal/non-fatal stroke110.89 (0.82 to 0.97)6.480.77400.006
 Ischaemic stroke30.93 (0.80 to 1.07)1.030.60900.301
Geographical area
 USA40.86 (0.76 to 0.98)1.500.68300.026
 Asia10.97 (0.81 to 1.16)00.740
 Europe60.88 (0.77 to 1.00)3.810.57700.051
History of stroke
 Yes30.89 (0.78 to 1.02)2.100.3514.60.105
 No80.89 (0.80 to 0.99)4.380.73500.027
Sex
 Male40.82 (0.64 to 1.06)4.900.17938.80.130
 Female50.92 (0.80 to 1.05)2.390.66400.216
 Combined30.86 (0.72 to 1.04)2.970.22732.60.114
Mean follow-up, years
 ≤1050.88 (0.77 to 1.01)3.780.43700.067
 >1060.89 (0.81 to 0.99)2.680.75000.036
Quality score
 High, score >850.85 (0.73 to 0.99)2.260.68800.038
 Low, score ≤860.91 (0.82 to 1.00)3.730.58900.048
  • RR, relative risk.