Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

First author, publication yearCountry/populationNo. of participants (% male)Age range or mean (years)Follow-up duration (years)Assessment of dietary dataStroke ascertainmentType and no. of stroke casesPre-stroke excludedStudy quality
Hirvonen et al,8 2000Finland/European26 497 (100)50–696.1A self-administered, modified diet history methodAny type of stroke based on ICD-8 or ICD-9 codesIschaemic: 736Yes8
Arts et al,9 2001The Netherlands/European806 (100)65–8415A cross-checked dietary history methodAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 codesFatal: 47, Non-fatal: 88No7
Knekt et al,10 2002Finland/European9131 (NA)30–6928A dietary history interviewAny type of stroke based on ICD-8 codesFatal or non-fatal: 681No8
Sesso et al,11 2003USA38 445 (0)53.96.9A food-frequency questionnaireAny type of stroke based on clinical diagnosisFatal or non-fatal: NAYes9
Marniemi et al,12 2005Finland/European755 (47.8)65–9910A dietary history interviewAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 codesFatal: 45, Non-fatal: 25Yes8
van der Schouw et al,13 2005The Netherlands/European16 165 (0)49–706.3A validated food-frequency questionnaireAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 codesFatal or non-fatal: 147Yes9
Mink et al,14 2007USA34 489 (0)55–6916A food-frequency questionnaireAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 codesFatal: 469Yes9
Mursu et al,15 2008Finland/European1950 (100)42–6015.2An instructed 4-day food recording by household measuresAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 or ICD-10 codesIschaemic: 102Yes9
Cassidy et al,16 2012USA69 622 (0)30–5514A semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire interviewAny type of stroke based on medical records, autopsy reports and death certificatesIschaemic: 943Yes8
McCullough et al,17 2012USA98 469 (38.8)707A semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire interviewAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 or ICD-10 codesFatal: 573Yes9
Talaei et al,18 2014Singapore/Asian60 298 (44.5)45–7414.7A semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire interviewAny type of stroke based on ICD-9 codesFatal: 1298No8
  • ICD, International Classification of Diseases; NA, not available.