Table 1

Association between LDL-C and all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, respectively, in 19 studies including 30 cohorts with 68 094 individuals from the general population above the age of 60 years

All-cause mortality
LDL-C tertiles or quartiles (HRs)
AuthorsRace if indicatedSexNAge;
IIIIIIIVCV mortalityExclusion criteria
Zimetbaum et al8MF35075–856, 3No associationNITerminal illness, dementia
Kronmal et al9MF74766–7510No associationNINone
 176>75No associationNI
Räihä et al10MF347≥6511NINo associationLiving in an institution
Fried et al7MF5201≥654.81.0??0.66 (significant)NIWheelchair user; cancer treatment
Chyou and Eaker11M367≥658–10No associationNINone
 F622No association  
Weverling-Rijnsburger et al12MF599≥8541.00.570.71
p for trend*
No associationNone
Schupf et al13MF2277≥6531.00.790.630.53
p for trend**
Tikhonoff et al14M1233≥6511, 1Mirror-J-formed association with the highest risk in the lowest quartileAlmost U-formed association with the highest risk in the lowest quartile*Dementia
 F1887Inverse association*Mirror-J-formed association with the highest risk in the lowest quartile*
Störk et al15M403>704No associationNo associationNone
Akerblom et al16
 CaucasiansMF705≥653.51.00.890.720.56*NIDementia, first year deaths
Upmeier et al17MF10327012No associationNo associationNone
Nilsson et al18M2107510No associationNINone
 F222No association 
Werle et al19MF187≥808, 7No associationNo associationNone
Bathum et al20M13 73360–701–91.00.67***0.49***0.45***NITerminal disease, CVD, diabetes, patients with a prescription of statin during the last year before test date
 F14 29860–701.00.56***0.45***0.47*** 
Linna et al21MF1260≥6410Inverse association**NINone
Jacobs et al22MF51278–858No associationNINone
 70285–905No association 
Takata et al23MF2078510Survivors 3.2 mmol/L; non-survivors: 2.9 mmol/L**No associationNone
Lv et al24M266≥8031.00.67 0.430.41*NIFirst year deaths
Blekkenhorst et al25F1469≥7010NINo associationNone
  • In the study by Fried et al, degree of significance was not reported.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †HR for 7415 men and 8314 women on statin treatment was 0.63 and 0.61, respectively.

  • F, females; M, males; NI, no information.