Table 2

Constructs and measures

DomainConstructMeasureItemsTime point*Completed by
 PrimaryDisabilityRMDQ6424T1, T2, T3Patient
 SecondarySocial role disabilityCore item691T1, T2, T3Patient
Work disabilityCore item691T1, T2, T3Patient
PainCore item691T1, T2, T3Patient
Well-beingCore item691T1, T2, T3Patient
SatisfactionCore item691T1, T2, T3Patient
Non-specific factors
 RelationshipTherapeutic allianceWAI-SF70 7112T2Patient
 Healthcare environmentOrganisationalABS-mp24 729T1Practitioner
Appointments, access, facilitiesPSQ7316T2Patient
 Treatment characteristicsModalitiesSingle item2T3 per patientPractitioner
DurationSingle item1T3 per patientPractitioner
 Patient's beliefsTreatment beliefsLBP treatment beliefs questionnaire7416T1Patient
 Practitioner's beliefsAttitudes to LBPABS-mp24 7212T1Practitioner
Outcome expectationsSingle item1T1 per patientPractitioner
Mediators/prognostic indicators
Risk complexity for recoverySTarT Back759T1, T2, T3Patient
Self-efficacySelf-efficacy for pain management765T1, T2, T3Patient
Adherence to lifestyle adviceSingle item3T1, T2, T3Patient
Illness perceptionsBIPQ779T1, T2, T3Patient
  • *T1=baseline (after first treatment for new episode of LBP); T2=during treatment (2 weeks post-baseline); T3=short-term outcome (3 months post-baseline).

  • ABS-mp, Attitudes to Back Pain Scale—Musculoskeletal Practitioners; BIPQ, Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire; LBP, low back pain; PSQ, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire; RMDQ, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; WAI-SF, Working Alliance Inventory—Short Form.