Table 4

Characteristics of children with violence exposures

Class 1Class 2Class 3Overall sample
Number (% total sample)696 (18.8)975 (26.3)2035 (54.9)3706
Gender female (%)494 (71.0)439 (45.0)1004 (49.3)1937 (52.3)
Age*
 Mean (SD)13.0 (1.5)13.0 (1.5)13.0 (1.4)13.0 (1.5)
 Median (range)13 (9–18)13 (9–18)13 (7–18)13 (7–18)
Number of meals eaten yesterday†
 1 meal116 (16.7)157 (16.1)243 (12.0)516 (13.9)
 2 meals268 (38.5)393 (40.3)782 (38.5)1443 (39.0)
 3+ meals312 (44.8)425 (43.6)1009 (49.6)1746 (47.1)
Number of children sharing sleeping area
 0104 (14.9)126 (12.9)248 (12.2)478 (12.9)
 1234 (33.6)291 (29.9)532 (26.1)1057 (28.5)
 2–4270 (38.8)422 (43.3)918 (45.1)1610 (43.4)
 5–727 (3.9)47 (4.8)82 (4.0)156 (4.2)
 8+61 (8.8)89 (9.1)255 (12.5)405 (10.9)
Ever worked for money‡240 (34.5)408 (41.9)639 (31.4)1287 (34.8)
Transport to school§
 Other25 (3.6)21 (2.2)93 (4.7)139 (3.8)
 Walking alone169 (24.5)240 (25.4)481 (24.2)890 (24.6)
 Walking with someone you know423 (61.4)622 (65.9)1269 (63.8)2314 (63.9)
Boarded at school72 (10.5)61 (6.5)146 (7.3)279 (7.7)
Disability55 (7.9)87 (8.9)129 (6.3)271 (7.3)
Absent on 1 or more days in past week¶159 (23.6)240 (24.8)373 (18.7)772 (21.2)
Low performer on educational tests63 (9.1)103 (10.6)212 (10.4)378 (10.2)
SDQ total score M (SD)10.6 (5.4)10.9 (5.5)8.2 (4.9)9.3 (5.3)
Physical violence**696 (100)975 (100)1829 (89.9)3500 (94.4)
Emotional violence**653 (93.8)963 (98.8)544 (26.7)2160 (58.3)
Sexual violence**170 (24.4)142 (14.6)17 (0.8)329 (8.9)
  • *N=3701.

  • †N=3705.

  • ‡N=3704.

  • §N=3622.

  • ¶N=3635.

  • **Refers to violence by any perpetrator.

  • SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.