Table 1

Coding of violence variables

Type of violenceVariablesItemsCoding
Emotional violenceEmotional abuse by a parent; emotional abuse by a peer; emotional abuse by school staff; emotional abuse by a non-parent relative; emotional abuse by others*Cursed, insulted, shouted at or humiliated you? Referred to your skin colour, gender, religion, tribe or health problems you have in a hurtful way? Stopped you from being with other children to make you feel bad or lonely? Tried to embarrass you because you were an orphan or without a parent? Embarrassed you because you were unable to buy things? Stole or broke or ruined your belongings? Threatened you with bad marks that you didn't deserve? Accused you of witchcraft? Made you stay outside, for example, in the heat or rain to punish you? Taken your food away from you as punishment?Coded 2 if any item was experienced many times in the past 12 months or before the past 12 months; 1 if any item was experienced a few or once in the past 12 months or before the past 12 months; 0 if answered no to all items
Physical violencePhysical abuse by a parent; physical abuse by a peer; physical abuse by school staff; physical abuse by a non-parent relative; physical abuse by others*Severe physical violence: Choked you? Severely beat you up? Tried to cut you purposefully with a sharp object? Burnt you as punishment? Moderate physical violence: hurt you or caused pain to you? Slapped you with a hand on your face or head as punishment? Slapped you with a hand on your arm or hand? Twisted your ear as punishment? Twisted your arm as punishment? Pulled your hair as punishment? Hit you by throwing an object at you? Hit you with a closed fist? Hit you with a stick? Caned you? Kicked you? Knocked you on the head as punishment? Made you dig, slash a field or do other labour as punishment? Hit your fingers or hands with an object as punishment? Crushed your fingers or hands as punishment? Made you stand or kneel in a way that hurts to punish you? Forced you to do something that was dangerous? Tied you up with a rope or belt at school?Coded 2 if any severe physical violence item was experienced; 1 if any moderate item was experienced; 0 if answered no to all items
Sexual violenceSexual abuse by a peer; sexual abuse by a relative; sexual abuse by school staff; sexual abuse by othersTeased you or made sexual comments about your breasts, genitals, buttocks or other body parts? Touched your body in a sexual way or in a way that made you uncomfortable? By ‘sexual way,’ we mean touching you on your genitals, breasts or buttocks. Showed you pictures, magazines, or movies of people or children doing sexual things? Made you take off your clothes when it was not for a medical reason? Opened or took their own clothes off in front of you when they should not have done so? Kiss you when you didn't want to be kissed? Make you touch their genitals, breasts or buttocks when you didn't want to? Touched your genitals, breasts or buttocks when you didn't want them to? Given you money or things in exchange for doing sexual things? Involved you in making sexual pictures or videos? Threatened or pressured you to have sex or do sexual things with them? Actually made you have sex with them by threatening or pressuring you or by making you afraid of what they might do? Made you have sex with them by physically forcing you (have sex with you)?Coded 1 if answered yes to any item; 0 if no to all items