Table 6

Overall summary of associations with long-term and stronger opioid prescribing (+=adjusted OR of 1–2; ++=OR of 2–3; +++=OR over 3; italics=OR <1)

Associations with long-term opioid prescribingAssociations with prescribing of stronger opioidsAssociations with stepping up from weaker to stronger opioidsAssociations with stepping down from stronger to weaker opioids
Age and genderFemale 50–64+
Female over 65++
Male (any age)+
Female 50–64+
Female over 65+
Male 18–49+
Male over 65−
Male over 65−Male 18–49−
Ethnicity (fitted as random effect)Pakistani, other and unknown ethnicity−Pakistani and other ethnicity−Pakistani, other and unknown ethnicity−Pakistani and other ethnicity+
Morbidity and health behaviourMental health problem+Mental health problem+
Definitive diagnosis+Definitive diagnosis+Definitive diagnosis+
Clinical presentation without definitive diagnosis−Clinical presentation without definitive diagnosis+
Overweight or obese−Underweight+++
Increasing polypharmacy+++Increasing polypharmacy+++Increasing polypharmacy+++Polypharmacy−
Consulting behaviour7–12 consultations per annum−
13 or over consultations per annum+
13 or over consultations per annum+7–12 consultations per annum+
13 or over consultations per annum+++
Increasing missed appointments+Increasing missed appointments+
ReferralsDiagnostic−
Medicine−
MSK+
Neurology+
Specialist pain management+++
Neurology+
Specialist pain management+++
Medicine+
MSK+
Neurology+
Specialist pain management+++
Surgery+
Neurology−
Specialist pain management−
Practice IMDHigher IMD+
  • IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; MSK, musculoskeletal