Table 4

Mean nutrient intake from weighed diet records of infants according to method of complementary feeding* (geometric mean (95% CI))

BLW
NutrientsNutrient reference value†TSF (n=26)‡Partial (n=7)Full (n=18)‡Mean per cent difference between groups§ (95% CI)p Value¶
Energy (kJ)Boys: 2800**; girls: 2500**2897 (2718 to 3088)3073 (2682 to 3521)2800 (2518 to 3115)−3.7 (−13.5 to 7.3)0.500
Protein (g)14 g17 (15 to 19)18 (14 to 23)15 (12 to 17)−14.4 (−28.3 to 2.3)0.087
Protein (% energy)10 (9 to 11)10 (9 to 11)9 (8 to 10)−11.3 (−20.6 to −1.0)0.033
Total fat (g)30 g33 (31 to 35)36 (33 to 38)36 (33 to 39)10.6 (0.4 to 21.9)0.042
Total fat (% energy)42 (39 to 44)43 (39 to 47)48 (46 to 50)15.1 (6.9 to 23.9)<0.001
 Saturated fat (g)14 (13 to 16)16 (15 to 17)17 (15 to 18)15.6 (3.7 to 28.8)0.009
 Saturated fat (% energy)18 (17 to 20)19 (17 to 22)22 (21 to 23)20.0 (8.9 to 32.2)<0.001
Total carbohydrate (g)95 g82 (75 to 90)86 (70 to 105)72 (64 to 82)−12.1 (23.8 to 1.4)0.076
Total carbohydrate (% energy)48 (46 to 50)47 (44 to 51)44 (42 to 46)−8.9 (−14.0 to −3.5)0.001
 Sugars (g)46 (35 to 61)54 (36 to 81)62 (57 to 68)42.3 (−2.4 to 107.3)0.067
 Dietary fibre (g)3.6 (2.2 to 5.8)3.7 (2.1 to 6.3)2.0 (1.2 to 3.4)−50.7 (−73.3 to −9.1)0.023
Iron (mg)7 mg3.6 (2.7 to 4.9)3.3 (1.3 to 8.0)1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)−59.0 (−72.5 to −38.9)<0.001
Zinc (mg)2.5 mg††3.7 (3.3 to 4.1)4.0 (2.9 to 5.4)3.0 (2.6 to 3.3)−20.5 (−31.1 to −7.4)0.001
Vitamin C (mg)30 mg66 (57 to 76)67 (53 to 86)46 (38 to 55)−29.6 (−40.0 to −12.9)0.001
Vitamin B12 (μg)0.5 μg0.5 (0.3 to 0.8)0.6 (0.3 to 1.1)0.2 (0.1 to 0.3)−60.2 (−76.2 to −33.5)<0.001
Calcium (mg)270 mg382 (352 to 436)437 (311 to 616)318 (290 to 349)−19.1 (−29.4 to −7.3)0.002
Sodium (mg)170 mg235 (200 to 275)235 (171 to 323)232 (178 to 302)−1.5 (−24.3 to 28.2)0.911
  • Bold typeface indicates a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  • *Method of complementary feeding parents reported using at the time the weighed diet record was completed.

  • †Nutrient reference values are the AI from food and breast milk (or infant formula) for infants 7–12 months of age (unless stated otherwise).24

  • ‡Geometric mean and 95% CI calculated using the mean of all available days of the diet record (7 participants completed a 1-day diet record: 4 full BLW, 3 TSF).

  • §Mean per cent difference between the BLW and TSF groups calculated using the mean of all available days of the diet record (7 participants completed a 1-day diet record: 4 full BLW, 3 TSF).

  • ¶p Values are calculated for mean difference between the full BLW and TSF groups using mixed-effects regression models of log-transformed nutrient intakes.

  • **EER for infants 7 months of age.

  • ††EAR.

  • AI, adequate intake; BLW, baby-led weaning; EAR, Estimated Average Requirement; EER, Estimated Energy Requirement; TSF, traditional spoon feeding.