Table 3

Risk factors of persistent chronic opioid use after THA in patients who were chronic user presurgery (N=302/593)

Risk factorCrude OR (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Demographics
 Age (per 10-year increment)0.97 (0.95 to 0.98)<0.0010.96 (0.93 to 0.99)<0.001*
Opioid-related comorbidities
 Back pain1.69 (1.20 to 2.38)0.0031.99 (1.20 to 3.23)0.008*
 Depression1.60 (1.12 to 2.28)0.0091.14 (0.67 to 1.96)0.629
 Psychoses1.97 (0.78 to 4.96)0.1491.47 (0.39 to 5.42)0.563
Medical comorbidities
 Diabetes with complications2.19 (1.12 to 3.87)0.0073.52 (1.05 to 11.8)0.042*
 IHD hypertension0.80 (0.58 to 1.12)0.1990.66 (0.41 to 1.07)0.090
 Diabetes uncomplicated2.17 (1.36 to 3.45)0.0011.89 (0.78 to 4.57)0.160
 Liver disease (severe) or failure1.49 (0.89 to 2.50)0.1291.25 (0.59 to 2.66)0.566
 Migraine2.93 (0.59 to 14.6)0.1901.76 (0.18 to 17.3)0.628
 Hypertension1.28 (0.92 to 1.79)0.1470.98 (0.59 to 1.63)0.934
 RA/collage vascular disorders2.46 (0.76 to 7.92)0.1331.01 (0.25 to 4.71)0.925
Analgesic use
 Days using opioids prior to surgery<0.001<0.001
  <94–† –†
  94–156Ref Ref
  157–2243.75 (2.28 to 6.18) 3.63 (2.08 to 6.34)
  225+4.85 (2.89 to 8.15) 5.18 (2.92 to 9.19)
 Average daily use of opioids (per 10 OME increment)1.11 (1.06 to 1.15) 1.06 (1.00 to 1.11)0.065
 Pre-THA: hypnotics and sedatives1.72 (1.21 to 2.42)0.0022.52 (1.48 to 4.30)<0.001*
  • *Significant variables (p<0.05) in final model.

  • †No cases of persistent chronic users in this group, could not model this level.

  • IHD, ischaemic heart disease; OME, oral morphine equivalents; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; Ref, reference; THA, total hip arthroplasty.