Table 1

Measurement tools

DemographicsQuestionnaireAge, sex, family structure, family income, parents’ educational status, address, phone number
Academic performanceQuestionnaireSchool status (public or private), scores in literature, maths, science and physical education, absenteeism
Medical informationQuestionnaireDuration of diagnosed DM, insulin dosage, type of insulin, frequency of insulin injections, hypoglycaemic crises, DKA and hospital admission in the last year, latest fasting blood sugar, BS(2HPP), BUN and Cr laboratory data and trend in HbA1C changes
CognitionCambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Intra-extra dimensional set shift (IED)
  • Stockings of Cambridge (SOC)

  • Spatial span (SSP)

  • Spatial working memory (SWM)

  • Rapid visual information processing (RVP)

  • Choice reaction time (CRT)

  • Pattern recognition memory (PRM)

Attention, working memory, verbal memory, spatial memory, executive function, decision making
Brain structureMRI 3 TeslaIntracranial vault, CSF and ventricular, hippocampus, total intracranial, total brain, grey matter and white matter volume
  • BS(2HPP), blood sugar (2 h post prandial); BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; DM, diabetes mellitus.