Table 2

Meta-analyses of perioperative clinical outcomes

Sample sizeTests for heterogeneityTest for overall effectEvent rate (%)RR/WWD
ItemsStudiesnPOS/POSI2p Value*Analysis modelZp Value*nPOS/POS95% CIFavours
Operative time (min)9–12, 14–241205/306654%0.006Random2.040.043.55 (0.14 to 6.97)nPOS
Supracostal access11, 12, 16, 21–23755/20430%0.97Fixed1.020.3112.8/13.50.89 (0.72 to 1.11)POS
Single tract9–11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24702/11790%0.80Fixed0.140.8990.5/91.51.00 (0.97 to 1.03)None
Requiring multiple tracts9–11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24702/11790%0.97Fixed0.680.499.5/8.51.11 (0.83 to 1.47)nPOS
Needing metal dilator8, 11, 13, 16470/60480%0.002Random1.910.068.4/16.85.02 (0.96 to 26.19)nPOS
Tract establishing time (min)17, 24152/2360%0.86Fixed1.000.320.85 (−0.82 to 2.53)nPOS
Fluoroscopic time (min)17, 20–24678/218133%0.19Fixed0.060.950.01 (−0.24 to 0.25)nPOS
Analgesics demand (mg)11, 12, 16, 22319/41744%0.72Fixed2.000.056.06 (0.12 to 11.99)nPOS
Haemoglobin drop (g/L)10, 18, 20, 22–24697/213931%0.20Fixed5.07<0.000011.78 (1.09 to 2.47)nPOS
Fever15–18, 22689/19340%0.84Fixed0.260.804.0/5.81.05 (0.70 to 1.58)nPOS
Haemorrhage8, 9, 18, 20, 22, 24304/68564%0.02Random0.090.936.1/9.91.02 (0.71 to 1.46)nPOS
Haemo/hydro/pneumothorax8, 11, 12, 16–18, 21–231016/24400%0.91Fixed0.250.801.3/1.40.93 (0.51 to 1.69)POS
Blood transfusion8, 11–15, 17, 18, 20–241245/29850%0.69Fixed0.760.456.4/7.61.10 (0.86 to 1.39)nPOS
Urinary tract infection9, 12, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22457/7530%0.91Fixed1.640.106.2/8.11.42 (0.93 to 2.15)nPOS
Sepsis11, 14, 17365/4758%0.34Fixed0.110.921.1/1.11.07 (0.31 to 3.66)nPOS
Angiographic embolisation9 13 19 20 23693/212837%0.17Fixed2.550.010.3/1.03.04 (1.29 to 7.16)nPOS
Total complications9–18, 21–241271/29560%0.99Fixed0.400.6914.8/16.81.03 (0.89 to 1.19)nPOS
Hospital stay(d)11, 12, 14–241119/280363%0.001Random0.720.470.06 (−0.10 to 0.22)nPOS
Secondary procedure10–14, 16, 19523/83164%0.01Random2.410.0218.7/27.31.61 (1.09 to 2.37)nPOS
Initial SRF8, 9, 11–18, 21–241334/296015%0.29Fixed2.680.00782.2/78.90.96 (0.92 to 0.99)nPOS
Final SRF8–10 13 15–17 19580/10130%0.79Fixed0.280.7892.7/93.41.00 (0.98 to 1.03)None
  • *p Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. (n)POS, (non-) previous open renal surgery group; RR, relative risk; SFR, stone-free rate; WMD weighted mean difference.