TableĀ 1

Association between disclosed conflicts of interest (COI) and other forms of COI (ie, inclusion of primary studies in reviews, researcher allegiance) and spin in review conclusions in all 95 reviews

Review with spin in conclusionReview without spin in conclusionOR (95% CI)
Inclusion of own primary study13212.08 (0.83 to 5.18)
No inclusion of own primary study1447
Researcher allegiance782.63 (0.84 to 8.16)
No researcher allegiance2060
COI disclosed9161.63 (0.61 to 4.32)
No COI disclosed1852
Inclusion of own primary study, researcher allegiance and/or COI declared16311.74 (0.70 to 4.29)
None of the three1137