Table 1

Bivariate analysis of associations with having childbirth attended by a traditional practitioner, among women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the past 2 years

CharacteristicExposedNon-exposedOR99% CIca*Missing data (%)
Availability of Western healthcare
 Antenatal care in a government facility*808/4349560/13000.310.22 to 0.410.7
 Woman with postsecondary or higher education*31/4511330/52010.250.13 to 0.370.6
 Woman with junior high education or higher729/3629632/20230.570.43 to 0.720.6
 Woman with any formal education1293/534968/3031.210.71 to 1.710.6
 Household head with postsecondary or higher91/8321249/47160.360.24 to 0.482.4
 Household head with junior high or higher730/3596610/19520.580.44 to 0.722.4
 Household head with any formal education1237/5143103/4050.990.65 to 1.332.4
Economic condition
 Household of good construction*796/3729566/19220.680.47 to 0.900.6
 Self-rated economic condition above community average805/3673558/19790.730.58 to 0.890.6
 Enough food last week1081/4616290/10650.850.63 to 1.060.1
 Household with safer water source538/2340824/33060.970.60 to 1.350.7
 Not living in a hard-to-reach community1203/5108168/5781.020.33 to 1.710.0
 Household using fuel other than charcoal or wood365/1486994/41611.100.73 to 1.480.7
 Living in an urban community457/1916914/37701.170.53 to 1.810.0
Family relations
 Not verbally abused by partner in past 12 months*344/1728856/32670.720.57 to 0.8612.2
 Does not report that neighbours were verbally abused143/7311064/42850.760.57 to 0.9511.8
 Not beaten by partner during past pregnancy855/3760347/12360.770.62 to 0.9212.1
 Not beaten by partner in past 12 months616/2807588/21920.780.63 to 0.9312.1
 Talked frequently with partner about pregnancy and delivery847/3738515/19040.800.65 to 0.960.8
Engagement with the modern state
 Mother of a child with birth certificate*465/2558872/29670.550.42 to 0.692.8
 From a community with electricity service889/3920401/15141.060.38 to 1.744.4
  • *Variables included in the initial multivariate model.

  • CIca, CIs using the method of Miettinen, adjusted for clustering with the method of Lamothe.