Table 3

Bivariate analysis of associations with use of traditional medicine for childhood diarrhoea

CharacteristicExposedNon-exposedAdjusted OR99% CIcaMissing data (%)
Availability of Western healthcare
 Children received BCG vaccine*532/509174/2990.370.26 to 0.490.7
 Household head has postsecondary or higher education*34/765567/45500.370.20 to 0.542
 Household head has junior high education or higher281/3217320/20980.550.42 to 0.682
 Household head has any formal education528/481173/5040.770.52 to 1.032
 Mother/caregiver has postsecondary or higher education13/317571/47880.440.14 to 0.735.9
 Mother/caregiver has junior high education or higher267/3085317/20200.530.37 to 0.705.9
 Mother/caregiver has any formal education529/477755/3280.690.38 to 0.995.9
 Father has postsecondary or higher education39/831525/43340.400.22 to 0.594.8
 Father has junior high education or higher320/3622244/15430.530.40 to 0.664.8
 Father has any formal education528/489336/2720.880.50 to 1.254.8
Economic conditions
 From a household using fuel other than charcoal or wood*71/1048539/43450.560.34 to 0.780.6
 From a household with a safer water source186/2095428/33070.690.47 to 0.910.4
 From a household with good quality construction332/3351282/20510.720.51 to 0.930.4
 Not living in a hard-to-reach community523/483292/5930.790.35 to 1.230.0
 Living in an urban community139/1529476/38960.810.43 to 1.190.0
 With enough food last week452/4091133/10310.880.62 to 1.145.6
 From a household considering their financial situation as above average for the community370/3394242/20040.920.68 to 1.170.5
Family relations
 Mother not beaten by partner during past pregnancy*309/3073158/10700.670.48 to 0.8723.7
 Mother not beaten by partner in past 12 months214/2225253/19220.730.53 to 0.9323.6
 Mother not verbally abused by partner in past 12 months115/1232351/29110.780.56 to 1.0023.6
 Mother does not report that neighbours were verbally abused43/497426/36590.820.43 to 1.2023.4
 Mother talked frequently with partner about pregnancy and delivery342/3053174/15921.060.79 to 1.3314.4
Engagement with the modern state
 Child has a birth certificate*189/2539418/27990.480.34 to 0.611.6
 From a community with electricity service328/3700246/15240.550.33 to 0.783.7
  • *Variables included in the initial multivariate model.

  • CIca, CIs using the method of Miettinen, adjusted for clustering with the method of Lamothe.