Table 1

Classification of social relationship measures

Tool usedNumber of itemsDimension 1: function vs structureDimension 2: degree of subjectivity
StructureFunctionInvolvement in relationshipsPerceived availabilityPerceived adequacyFeelings/emotions
Berkman-Syme Social Network Index*4XXX
11-item de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale*11XXXX
35-item Duke Social Support Index32XXXXX
11-item Duke Social Support Index11XXXXX
4-item Duke Social Support Index4XXXX
Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire11XXX
ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI)7XXXXX
Gijón Scale for the elderly's social-family assessment, family and social relationships subscales10XX
12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)12XX
Interview Measure of Social RelationshipsData not foundXXXXX
Litwin Support Network Types7XX
10-item Lubben Social Network Scale10XXXX
6-item Lubben Social Network Scale6XXXX
Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey20XX
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)12XX
Negative Affect Scale5XX
Nottingham Health Profile Social Isolation subscale5XXX
Older Americans Research and Service Center (OARS) Social Resource Scale7XXXXXX
Oslo-3 Social Support Scale3XX
Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ2000)15XXXX
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale20 X XXX
Wenger Support Network Typology8XX
A measure of social isolation (LaVeist, 1997)2XX
A measure of social network (Mechakra-Tahiri, 2011)4XX
A measure of social anchorage (Rennemark, 2009)4 XX
Questionnaire on social network (Rodriguez-Artalejo, 2006)4X X 
Question about the number of sources of support (Tennstedt, 1993)1XXX
An index of social support (Lai, 2006)5XXXX
A measure of living arrangements and informal care (Crets, 1996)2XX
A measure of satisfaction with social support (Feld, 1994)6 XXX
A measure of social integration (Orth-Gomer, 1996)6XXXX
A measure of social isolation (Cloutier-Fischer, 2009)2XXXX
A measure of social network (Reed, 1983)9XX
A measure of social network (Reed, 1984)4XX
A measure of social support (Tran, 1997)5XX
A measure of social support (André-Petersson, 2006)13 XXXX
A measure of social support (Ikeda, 2008)4XXXX 
A measure of social support (Kuper, 2006)6XXX 
A social network index (Rutledge, 2008)12XX 
Social network type (Coe, 1984)2XXX
Social network type—family (Coe, 1985)2XXX
Multi-item measures combining questions about frequency of contact with others and participation in activities2 or moreXX
Question(s) about frequency of face-to-face and/or phone contact with family and/or friends and/or neighbours—eg, ‘How many times during the past week did you spend some time with someone who does not live with you?’ (Hyduk, 1996)1 or moreXX
Question(s) about the geographical proximity of family and friends1XX
Question(s) about the number of close friends or relatives—eg, asking respondents for the ‘number of friends [they] feel close to’ (Lee, 2008)1 or moreXXX
Question(s) about participation in social activities such as going to the cinema, sport events, church attendance or volunteering—eg, ‘In the past two weeks, did you go to a show or movie, sports event, club meeting, classes or other group event?’ (The Longitudinal Study of Aging, 1992)1 or moreX
Question(s) about the perceived availability of emotional, tangible, informational and/or other support—eg, ‘Is there someone who would give you any help at all if you were sick or disabled, for example your husband/wife, a member of your family, or a friend?’ (Barresi, 1987)1 or moreXX
Question(s) about received support—eg, asking participants whether they received assistance during the past month with 7 tasks, including shopping, housework or going to the doctor1 or moreX
Question(s) about satisfaction with social relationships and/or participation—eg, asking participants whether they believe their present level of social activities to be adequate4XX
Question(s) about the size of a person's network—eg, number of friends and relatives outside the household1 or moreXX
Question about time spent alone1XX
Single-item question about feeling lonely—eg, ‘How often in the last 12 months have you been bothered by loneliness?’1XX
  • *Subscales available.