Table 2

Description of outcome measures for the CYCLE pilot and full RCT

Outcome measureDescription
Physical strength and function measures
 1. Outcome for full RCT (anticipated): PFIT-s31 32Patients complete four activities: arm and leg strength, ability to stand, and step cadence. Scores range from 0 to 10, with higher score=better function.
 2. Outcomes
  Medical Research Council muscle strength34 35Standardised physical examination of six muscle groups (three upper, three lower), using a six-point scale (0=no contraction; 5=contraction sustained against maximal resistance), summed to a total score (range 0–60), higher score=better strength.
  30 s sit-to-stand37 38Patient completes as many full sit-to-stand repetitions within 30 s, with higher score=better strength.
  2 min walk test39 40Patient walks as far as possible over 2 min, with farther distance=better endurance.
  Quadriceps strength36Standardised physical examination using a small device that fits into the palm of the examiner's hand, and quantifies force (in Newtons) on a continuous scale when the patient's leg pushes against the device, higher score=better strength.
Other measures
 Clinical Frailty Scale43Nine-point scale evaluating physical function, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and assistance for personal care; higher score=more frailty and poorer function.
 Katz activities of daily living scale44Six-question survey evaluating dependence or independence in bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence and feeding. Each item rated dependent or independent; higher score=more independence.
 Intensive Care Psychological Assessment Tool45Ten-item interviewer-administered questionnaire to identify acute distress and risk of future psychological distress. Score ranges from 0 to 20; score of 7 or more represents higher risk of psychological distress.
 Quality of Life: EuroQOL 5DL47 48Five-question interviewer or self-administered, preference-based instrument to measure mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain and anxiety/depression, and a global assessment of health; higher score=better quality of life.
  • In this table, we describe the outcome measures included in the CYCLE pilot RCT and the future full CYCLE RCT.

  • ICU, intensive care unit; RCT, randomised clinical trial; PFIT, Physical Function Test for ICU; QOL, quality of life.