Table 1

List of coding categories, operational definitions and predetermined codes

Coding categoriesOperational definitionsPredetermined codes
Predisposing characteristicsAny variable that is considered a predisposition of an individual. Demographic characteristics such as age, gender, marital status and education level, occupation and ethnicity, are the examples of predisposing characteristics. Also, health beliefs are considered to be one of the predisposing characteristics, such as attitudes, values and knowledge about healthcare. In addition, a broader concept of predisposing characteristics encompasses social networks and interactions that individuals have.
  • ▸ Chronic symptom history

  • ▸ Health beliefs

  • ▸ Personal health practices (diet, exercise, etc)

  • ▸ Preventive health behaviours

  • ▸ Social network and interaction

  • ▸ Values and cultural norms

Enabling resourcesAny variables that support or impede a patient's access to healthcare are generally considered as enabling resources. Financial factors such as economic status and health insurance determine healthcare service utilisation. Lack of the enabling resources may delay the healthcare service utilisation.
  • ▸ Distance to hospitals

  • ▸ Health insurance

  • ▸ Transport to hospitals

  • ▸ Waiting time

NeedAny variables for need consist of perceived and evaluated need. Perceived need is the need created based on how people judge their general health status. Emotional response to pain and illness are also included in this category. Evaluated need is the judgement made by medical professionals regarding the need for healthcare provision to the patients.
  • ▸ Perceived need

  • ▸ Medical symptoms

  • ▸ Satisfaction of received healthcare

  • ▸ Self-rated general health status

  • ▸ Worry about their health condition