Table 1

The causes of maternal deaths and preventability as evaluated by the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan, from 2010 to 2012 (n=213)

Cause of deathFrequency (n)
Obstetric haemorrhage23% (49)
 Uterine-artery focused amniotic fluid embolism23
 Atonic bleeding6
 Uterine rupture6
 Placental abruption4
 Uterine inversion4
 Placenta accreta3
 Cervical and vaginal laceration3
Brain disease16% (35)
 Cerebral stroke34
 Cerebral venous embolism1
Amniotic fluid embolism12% (27)
Cardiovascular disease8% (17)
 Aortoclasia6
 Cardiomyopathy3
 Cardiac infarction2
 Long QT syndrome2
 Myocarditis1
 Mitral valve stenosis1
 Pulmonary hypertension1
 Right subclavian venous rupture1
Pulmonary disease8% (16)
 Pulmonary embolism13
 Pulmonary oedema3
Infectious disease7% (15)
 Group A streptococcal infection8
 Septic shock4
 Tuberculosis2
 Bacterial meningitis1
Liver disease2% (4)
 Liver rupture2
 Acute hepatitis2
Convulsion1% (2)
Others1% (3)
Malignant disease3% (6)
 Stomach cancer3
 Ureter cancer1
 Malignant lymphoma1
 Myelodysplastic syndrome1
Trauma5% (10)
 Suicide8
 Traffic accident2
Unexplained14% (29)
 Not evaluable10
 Lack of information19