Table 1

Patient baseline characteristics

CharacteristicTiotropium Respimat
2.5 μg (n=914)
Tiotropium Respimat
5 μg (n=917)
Tiotropium HandiHaler
18 μg (n=951)
Gender, n (%)
 Male551 (60.3)568 (61.9)585 (61.5)
 Female363 (39.7)349 (38.1)366 (38.5)
Age, mean years (SD)67.3 (8.6)67.4 (8.8)66.9 (8.9)
BMI, mean kg/m2 (SD)27.2 (6.3)26.9 (6.2)26.8 (6.2)
Current smoker, n (%)262 (28.7)278 (30.3)290 (30.5)
Smoking history, mean pack-years (SD)51.9 (28.6)51.4 (29.0)52.7 (28.7)
Postbronchodilator spirometry, mean (SD)
 FEV1, L1.21 (0.46)1.25 (0.47)1.24 (0.46)
 FEV1, % predicted45.8 (14.2)46.7 (13.9)46.1 (13.7)
 FVC, L2.62 (0.86)2.65 (0.87)2.64 (0.89)
 Ratio of FEV1 to FVC0.47 (0.12)0.48 (0.11)0.48 (0.11)
GOLD stage, n (%)
 I+II367 (40.2)398 (43.4)375 (39.4)
 III411 (45.0)398 (43.4)443 (46.6)
 IV128 (14.0)117 (12.8)124 (13.0)
Previous cardiac arrhythmia, n (%)154 (16.8)138 (15.1)158 (16.6)
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter56 (6.1)50 (5.5)57 (6.0)
 Bundle branch block51 (5.6)39 (4.3)35 (3.7)
 Ventricular fibrillation3 (0.3)3 (0.3)4 (0.4)
 Supraventricular tachycardia7 (0.8)7 (0.8)16 (1.7)
 Ventricular tachycardia6 (0.7)5 (0.5)10 (1.1)
 Bradycardia14 (1.5)18 (2.0)25 (2.6)
 Atrioventricular block12 (1.3)10 (1.1)16 (1.7)
 Other conduction disorders25 (2.7)27 (2.9)28 (2.9)
Previous MI, n (%)79 (8.6)91 (9.9)99 (10.4)
Previous stroke, n (%)21 (2.3)24 (2.6)27 (2.8)
Previous IHD or CAD, n (%)154 (16.8)149 (16.3)184 (19.3)
Taking CV medication, n (%)554 (60.6)551 (60.1)568 (59.7)
 β-blockers169 (18.5)178 (19.4)190 (20.0)
 Calcium channel blockers164 (17.9)175 (19.1)174 (18.3)
 Cardiac glycosides22 (2.4)19 (2.1)28 (2.9)
 ACE inhibitors221 (24.2)210 (22.9)209 (22.0)
 Angiotensin receptor blockers111 (12.1)128 (14.0)127 (13.4)
 Nitrates40 (4.4)46 (5.0)49 (5.2)
 Antiarrhythmics class I or III (sodium or potassium channel blockers)6 (0.7)8 (0.9)15 (1.6)
 Acetylsalicylic acid276 (30.2)300 (32.7)281 (29.5)
 Anticoagulants*52 (5.7)45 (4.9)41 (4.3)
 Antiplatelets55 (6.0)55 (6.0)63 (6.6)
Use of respiratory medication
 LAMA914 (100.0)917 (100.0)951 (100.0)
 LABA637 (69.7)631 (68.8)644 (67.7)
 SABA615 (67.3)601 (65.5)628 (66.0)
 ICS613 (67.1)612 (66.7)626 (65.8)
 β-adrenergics615 (67.3)601 (65.5)628 (66.0)
 LRTA50 (5.5)49 (5.3)56 (5.9)
 Mucolytics35 (3.8)39 (4.3)44 (4.6)
 Supplemental oxygen123 (13.5)120 (13.1)122 (12.8)
 Xanthines92 (10.1)73 (8.0)88 (9.3)
  • Two patients from centres with data irregularities were excluded.

  • *Includes vitamin K antagonists, direct thrombin inhibitors, factor Xa inhibitors.

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CV, cardiovascular; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LABA, long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; LRTA, leucotriene receptor antagonist; MI, myocardial infarction; SABA, short-acting β2-agonist.