Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Study IDStudy designClinical practice guidelineClinical specialtyClinical practice guideline was updated in the postimplementation phase* (yes/no)Time frame (years)
Ament et al,22 The NetherlandsCase seriesGuideline to facilitate short stay for breast cancer surgery36SurgeryBetween 2007 and 2012: no42 435
Benenson et al,23 UKCase seriesClinical pathway for pneumonia44VariousBetween 1995 and 1997: no45 463
Cates,24 UKCase seriesGuideline for antibiotic prescription for children with earache and inflamed eardrums who are not unduly ill47General practiceBetween 1998 and 2001: no48Centre 1: 3; centre 2: 2
Enriquez-Puga et al,25 UKRCT(1) Antidepressant prescription guideline and49 (2) Antibiotic prescription guideline50
Control group: intervention groups were each other's control group
General practiceGuideline 1 between 2003 and 2004: yes51
Guideline 2 between 2003 and 2004: no50
Forsner et al,26 SwedenRCTClinical guideline (1) for depression52 and (2) for suicidal behaviours48
Control group: received the guideline but were not included in the intervention
Gerber et al,35 USACase seriesOutpatient antimicrobial stewardship intervention53Pediatric primary careBetween 2011 and 2014: no531.5
Higuchiet al,27 CanadaCase series(1) Adult Asthma Care Best Practice Guideline54 and (2) Reducing Foot Complications for People with Diabetes Best Practice Guideline55(1) Various
(2) Various
Guideline 1 between 2002 and 2006: yes56
Guideline 2 between 2003 and 2006: yes57
(1) 4
(2) 3
Kelly,28 AustraliaCase seriesGuideline for nurse managed titrated narcotic analgesia58Emergency medicineUTD2
Knops et al,29 The NetherlandsCase series(1) A fluid balance guideline for oncology patients38
(2) A body temperature guideline for postoperative patients59
(1) Various
(2) Surgery
Guideline 1 UTD (local guideline)
Guideline 2 UTD (local guideline)
Loszadi et al,30 UKCase seriesGuidelines for the prevention and management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis60NeurologyUTDUnknown, >2
McLaws et al,31 AustraliaCase seriesGuidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care61VariousBetween 2007–2008: no611.5
Stéphan et al,32 SwitzerlandCase seriesGuideline for urine catheterization management for surgical procedures62Orthopaedic / abdominal surgeryUTD (local guideline)1.5
Wakefield et al,33 USACase seriesGuideline for the use of transdermal fentanyl for chronic pain33VariousUTD1.5
Williams et al,34 UKCase seriesGuideline for the repair and follow-up of third degree tears63Obstetrics and gynaecologyUTD (local guideline)2
  • *The cpg was updated between the POST and LATE POST measurement (yes) or was not updated between the POST and LATE POST measurement (no). †Not updated with respect to the key recommendations of the guideline. The guideline was adopted in national guidelines in the postimplementation phase.

  • RCT, randomised controlled trial; UTD, unable to determine.