Table 5

Associations between self-reported Poor oral health and social and health variables (N=567)

Poor oral health (n)*Poor oral health (%)*Test statisticp Value
General health, dichotomisedχ²Yates=21.56<0.001
 Fair or poor 120 59.7
 Good to excellent13838.9
Mental health, dichotomisedχ²Yates=12.29<0.001
 Fair or poor10057.8
 Good to excellent15841.4
Disabling chronic pain†χ²Yates=18.66<0.001
 No pain (grades 0-II)9736.7
 Pain (grades (III-IV)14855.8
PTSD symptoms (PCL-C)‡χ²Yates=16.55<0.001
 No or low symptoms (below threshold)7034.4
 Probable PTSD18152.6
Depressive symptoms (CESD-R)§χ²Yates=8.920.003
 No depressive symptoms10339.0
 Some depressive symptoms14752.1
Depression (self-reported)χ²Yates=8.280.004
Anxiety (self-reported)χ²Yates=6.810.009
HIV/AIDS (self-reported)χ²Yates=6.480.011
Hepatitis C (self-reported)χ²Yates=9.800.002
Shelter (accessed past 12 months)χ²Yates=20.56<0.001
Living situation¶χ²Yates=10.340.001
 Market housing13240.0
 Non-market housing10555.0
Overall financial strain**χ²Yates=37.09<0.001
 Not difficult4125.3
Ageɼs= 0.0260.548
Aboriginal identityχ²Yates=5.380.020
  • *Where reported frequencies add up to less than the total n for Poor oral health, and/or percentages do not add up to 100, this is due to missing data.

  • Chronic pain grade, as scored on the Von Korff chronic pain scale,32 which classifies pain from grade 0 (pain free) to IV (high disability-severely limiting).

  • Scores from the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist, Civilian Version (PCL-C)33 ,34 were compared against a predetermined cut score of 35 to determine which people were experiencing high levels of trauma symptoms.

  • §Participants’ total Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R)29–31 scores were collapsed into categories of No depressive symptoms and Some depressive symptoms, based on an overall cut score of 16.

  • Market housing includes individuals living in a private apartment, condo or house. Non-market housing includes individuals who reported living in public, social or supportive housing, those couch-surfing, living in shelters, on the street, in a vehicle, in a single-room occupancy hotel and those who chose ‘other’ in lieu of the above options.

  • **Not difficult includes responses of Not at all difficult and Not very difficult. Responses of Very difficult and Somewhat difficult were collapsed into Difficult.

  • ^Two participants identified as transgender; however, their cases were excluded from this specific test due to insufficient data.