Table 4

Baseline comparison of secondary outcomes between Tai Chi and usual physical activities group

VariablesTai Chi groupUsual physical activity groupT(Z) valuep Value
nMean±SD (median, 75–25%)nMean±SD (median, 75–25%)
Cardiac structure and function
 AOD, cm852.73±0.32852.77±0.34−0.7480.456
 LAD, cm853.17±0.46853.18±0.52−0.1580.874
 IVST, cm851.03±0.14851.02±0.150.4770.634
 LVDD, cm854.38±0.51854.38±0.400.0500.960
 LVPWT, cm850.94±0.11850.93±0.110.7070.480
 LVAWT, cm851.03±0.12851.03±0.13−0.1760.861
 RAD, cm853.14 (3.34–2.95)853.06 (3.32–2.85)−1.0520.293
 RVID, cm852.96±0.35852.97±0.35−0.3070.759
 MPAD, cm852.05±0.20852.09±0.27−1.1060.270
 LVEF, %8562.0 (65.5–58.5)8563.0 (65.0–60.0)−0.8660.387
Static lung function
 VCmax, L832.97±0.69822.86±0.701.0740.285
 FEV1, L832.40±0.55822.31±0.591.0180.310
 FEV1%FVC8388.18 (91.65–83.50)8287.51 (92.39–83.69)−0.0180.986
 MVV, L/min8378.96 (100.34–66.74)8286.03 (107.0–72.2)−1.1420.253
 Missing23
Plasma risk factor indexes
 TC, mmol/L855.58±1.05855.52±1.170.3570.772
 TG, mmol/L851.30 (1.73–0.95)851.23 (1.65–0.98)−0.1680.866
 LDL, mmol/L853.62±0.90853.76±1.09−0.9310.353
 HDL, mmol/L851.34 (1.62–1.15)851.27 (1.51–1.08)−1.2980.194
 FBG, mmol/L855.41 (5.82–5.06)855.37 (6.06–5.09)−0.3230.747
 HCY, μmol/L8510.80 (12.80–8.42)859.82 (12.70–8.25)−1.0850.278
Balance capability
 Opened eyes perimeter, mm85278.0 (347.0–233.5)85267.0 (322.5–213.5)−1.2200.222
 Closed eyes perimeter, mm85480.0 (594.0–359.0)85418.0 (563.0–346.5)−1.5770.115
 Opened eyes ellipse area, mm285228.0 (324.5–167.0)85241.0 (362.0–160.0)−0.2490.803
 Closed eyes ellipse area, mm285494.0 (768.0–344.0)85533.0 (722.0–354.0)−0.1850.853
Proprioception capability
 ATE of right lower limb8539.0 (58.5–31.5)8539.0 (58.5–31.5)−0.7080.479
 ATE of left lower limb8536.0 (49.0–28.5)8539.0 (56.0–27.5)−0.8740.382
 ATE of waist clockwise8548.0 (79.0–34.5)8553.0 (68.0–37.0)−0.0310.975
 ATE of waist anticlockwise8546.0 (63.5–33.5)8545.0 (60.5–35.0)−0.0670.947
Physical parameters
 BMI, kg/m28525.37±3.198525.04±3.050.6860.494
 WHR850.90±0.07850.90±0.070.3510.726
 Flexibility, cm85−2.67±11.3285−3.60±12.370.5130.609
Psychological outcomes
 SF-36 scales
 SF-36 (PCS)8581.00 (87.88–66.75)8572.50 (83.25–56.50)−2.7630.006
 SF-36(MCS)8585.25 (92.00–72.96)8581.75 (90.75–65.52)−1.6940.090
 Quality of sleep (PSQI)856.0 (9.0–4.0)856.0 (9.0–4.0)−0.6420.521
 Mood, (POMS-SF)8593.0 (106.0–82.0)8594.0 (115.0–80.5)−0.1650.869
  • AOD, aortic diameter; ATE, average track error; BMI, body mass index; FBG, fasting blood glucose; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; HCY, homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IVST, interventricular septum thickness; LAD, left atrial diameter; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LVAWT, left ventricular anterior wall thickness; LVDD, left ventricular diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVPWT, left ventricular posterior wall thickness; MCS, mental component summary score; MPAD, main pulmonary artery diameter; MVV, maximal voluntary ventilation; PCS, physical component summary score; POMS-SF, Profile of Mood States Short Form; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; RAD, right atrial diameter; RVID, right ventricle internal diameter; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; VCmax, maximum vital capacity; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.