Table 2

Baseline characteristics of participants with diabetes, overall and stratified by number of days of drug use in the past 30 days*

Number of days of drug use in past 30 days (tertiles)†
CharacteristicAll (n=62)Lowest (n=20)Middle (n=21)Highest (n=21)
Age, mean (SD)48 (10)49 (9)50 (10)45 (12)
Female, % (n)34 (21)30 (6)29 (6)43 (9)
Non-White, % (n)‡89 (55)95 (19)91 (19)81 (17)
High school graduate or equivalent73 (45)70 (14)76 (16)71 (15)
Health insurance, % (n)90 (56)85 (17)95 (20)91 (19)
Charlson comorbidity score, greater or equal to 1, % (n)98 (61)100 (20)100 (21)95 (20)
Depression, % (n)§31 (19)25 (5)29 (6)38 (8)
Drug type, % (n)¶
 Marijuana63 (39)45 (9)57 (12)86 (18)
 Opioids15 (9)15 (3)14 (3)14 (3)
 Cocaine18 (11)35 (7)19 (4)0 (0)
 Other drugs5 (3)5 (1)10 (2)0 (0)
Unhealthy drinking, any, % (n)**60 (37)65 (13)62 (13)52 (11)
ASSIST global drug score, mean (std)††16 (13)10 (9)19 (15)19 (14)
Inadequate BG control, % (n)‡‡44 (24)53 (8)45 (9)37 (7)
  • *Study sample is 62 unique individuals with diabetes contributing at least one HbA1c measurement for analyses at either baseline or 6 months.

  • †Number of days use of the main drug in past 30 days: Lowest tertile: 0–4 days; middle tertile: 5–18 days; highest tertile: 19–30 days.

  • ‡7% of participants self-identified as Hispanic, 82% as black (not Hispanic).

  • §Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score of 10 or higher.

  • ¶Main drug type. Other drugs: sedatives, amphetamine, other stimulants.

  • **AUDIT C- score of 3 or greater for women, 4 or greater for men.

  • ††Drug use severity.

  • ‡‡Haemoglobin A1c of 8% or greater. Inadequate BG among participants with a HbA1c measurement before the baseline interview was 44% (24/54) and before the 6-month study interview was 34% (10/29).

  • BG, blood glucose; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; std, standard.