Table 1

Difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between outpatients and inpatients

TotalMaleFemale
Outpatients (n=5441)Inpatients (n=14 237)p ValueOutpatients (n=3147)Inpatients (n=7527)p ValueOutpatients (n=2294)Inpatients (n=6710)p Value
Age (years)52.2±13.760.0±12.9<0.001*51.8±13.058.7±12.7<0.001*52.9±14.461.5±13.0<0.001*
BMI (kg/m2)25.3±4.622.3±4.0<0.001*25.4±4.222.2±3.7<0.001*25.3±5.022.4±4.3<0.001*
WC (cm)87.6±12.883.4±11.5<0.001*90.2±11.484.8±10.7<0.001*83.9±13.881.8±12.2<0.001*
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)127.2±18.2120.4±17.2<0.001*128.9±17.7121.3±17.1<0.001*124.8±18.6119.4±17.3<0.001*
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)78.2±12.474.5±12.1<0.001*79.5±12.275.4±12.0<0.001*76.4±12.473.4±12.2<0.001*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)55.9±19.055.0±19.9NS*51.4±16.350.9±18.8NS*62.0±20.659.6±20.00.002*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)117.6±34.9106.9±44.8<0.001*117.1±35.4101.9±39.1<0.001*118.3±34.2112.5±49.70.001*
TC (mg/dL)196.7±38.4177.7±37.1<0.001*192.6±38.4168.3±34.1<0.001*202.1±37.7188.5±37.4<0.001*
TG (mg/dL)141.9±99.4101.0±58.7<0.001*153.8±109.0102.8±62.2<0.001*125.8±82.199.0±54.5<0.001*
FPG (mg/dL)108.4±40.392.6±24.4<0.001*110.6±42.192.8±22.8<0.001*105.5±37.692.4±26.1<0.001*
Na (mEq/L)140.1±4.4139.6±4.8140.8±3.9
K (mEq/L)4.2±0.54.2±0.54.2±0.5
Lifestyle-related diseases
 Prevalence of hypertension (%)30.519.9<0.001†34.021.2<0.001†25.618.5<0.001†
 Prevalence of lipid abnormality (%)46.627.8<0.001†48.526.7<0.001†43.929.0<0.001†
 Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (%)16.87.1<0.001†18.37.3<0.001†14.76.9<0.001†
Status of antipsychotic therapy
 No treated (%)6.27.3<0.001†5.97.1<0.001†6.67.6<0.001†
 Antipsychotic monopharmacy (%)49.440.346.938.352.842.6
 Antipsychotic polypharmacy (%)44.452.447.254.740.649.8
Ratio of SGA therapy (%)73.375.8<0.001†72.874.80.03†74.076.80.005†
Total CP equivalence (mg)532.0±472.6691.1±622.3<0.001*556.9±474.5723.1±650.9<0.001*497.9±468.0655.2±586.5<0.001*
Smoking (%)36.224.0<0.001†47.836.0<0.001†20.310.4<0.001†
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD.

  • Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg.

  • Lipid abnormality was defined as HDL<40 mg/dL in males and <50 mg/dL in females, and/or LDL≥140 mg/dL, TC≥220 mg/dL and TG≥150 mg/dL.

  • Diabetes mellitus was defined as FPG≥126 mg/dL.

  • *Data are analysed using unpaired Student t test between outpatients and inpatients.

  • †Data are analysed using χ2 test between outpatients and inpatients.

  • BMI, body mass index; CP, chlorpromazine; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NS, not significant; SGA, second-generation antipsychotic; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; WC, waist circumference.