Table 3

Crude and adjusted effects of the variables in the logistic regression model (n=238)*

VariableUnadjusted effect (OR)95% CIAdjusted effect (OR)95% CIType of effect†
Age (years)0.84(0.76 to 0.09)0.82‡(0.73 to 0.92)Direct
History of violence5.02(1.71 to 14.72)7.40§(1.90 to 27.60)Total
Exclusive breast feeding0.34(0.12 to 0.96)0.20§(0.06 to 0.70)Total
Regular prenatal vitamins0.19(0.07 to 0.48)0.17§(0.06 to 0.50)Total
  • *Interactions between the variables in the model were tested and found insignificant.

  • †According to the DAG.

  • ‡Adjusted for history of violence, exclusive breast feeding and regular prenatal vitamins to give a direct effect of age on PND according to the DAG.

  • §Adjusted for age in years according to the DAG.

  • DAG, directed acyclic graph; PND, postnatal depression.