Table 1

Growing healthy objectives and strategies

Program objectives (target behaviours)Key determinants (theoretical domain)Sample strategies (intervention function)Push notification/text message
1. Promote breastfeeding
  1. Mother exclusively breastfeeds until the introduction of solid foods

Able to breastfeed without pain/problems
Getting appropriate help when needed
BF frequently (enough to maintain milk supply)
Having enough milk
Believing have enough milk (confidence)
Not introduce formula early/supplement with formula
Commit to breastfeeding exclusively (plan/intend)
Be able to breastfeed in public as needed
Avoid introducing dummy early/correct dummy use
Continuing breastfeeding after returning to work
Manage realistic expectations
Supportive partner/family/peers
Training (latch, dummy use)
Education (breastmilk as normal food for babies, milk supply cycle, checking if baby is getting enough)
Support (providing contact numbers for help, information on realistic expectations)
Motivate (via messages to set breastfeeding goals, to continue breastfeeding, to seek help and support)
Do you want to breastfeed (y) but find it painful? Ask for help! Most problems can be worked through with the right help. Find help here. (Links to help, baby age 2 weeks)
If you are thinking of trying a dummy-
Try waiting 1 more week till you set up your milk supply, and learn the best way to use one here. (Links to information on dummies, baby age 3 weeks)
Did you know that the more you feed the more milk you make? Read more about milk supply here. (Links to information on milk supply, baby age 5 weeks)
How is breastfeeding going? It gets easier as your baby gets older! Focus on your successes knowing you're doing the best thing for your baby (links to information on why to breastfeed, baby age 6 weeks)
  • Mother continues breastfeeding alongside introduction of solid foods and other liquids—for the duration of the intervention (9 months)

  • Mother provides breast/formula combination over formula exclusively before and after the introduction of solid foods (‘mixed feeding’)

2. Best practice formula feeding
  1. Mother chooses the most appropriate formula for the infant

  2. Mother prepares formula correctly (follows instructions on tin for loosely packed, level scoop, correct number of scoops, uses correct scoop, add water first)

  3. Mother does not add anything else to the bottle (eg, cereals, honey)

  4. Mother uses appropriate feeding practices (ie, cradles baby throughout feed, no bottle cropping, doesn't put baby to bed with bottle)

  5. Initiates feeding according to baby's hunger level. Does not force baby to start feeding

  6. Stops feeding according to baby's hunger level. Doesn't force continuation (stops feeding when infant loses interest, not when formula is finished or a certain volume is consumed)

  7. Mother does not use milk to sooth infant

  8. Mother does not give infant formula to promote sleep (by reducing hunger)

Formula if often incorrectly prepared (capability)
Cereal is added to formula to promote sleep (motivation)
Feeding is used to settle baby or promote sleep and often first response to infant crying (motivation/capability)
Baby is put to bed with a bottle to promote sleep (motivation/capability)
Model correct formula preparation using a video (modelling)
Educate that adding cereal to the bottle will not help baby sleep (educate)
Demonstrate settling strategies (training) and provide information on how to promote better sleep for baby (educate) without use of milk for settling
Demonstrate hunger, fullness and sleep cues (education/training)
Provide information on baby's ability to self-regulate appetite (education)
Provide information on dangers of putting baby to bed with bottle (educate) and strategies to promote better sleep (training)
Provide information on dangers of bottle propping (education) and benefits of holding baby while feeding (incentivisation)
Able to make formula in your sleep?
Don't forget—always add the water THEN the powder when making up a bottle. More on making formula here (link to step by step instructions and video—baby age 5 weeks)
When (y) is crying do you find yourself reaching for the bottle sometimes? Read here for other ways to manage the crying (baby age 4 weeks)
Does (y) drink different amounts of formula on different days?
This is normal! Read more on how much to feed here (baby age 13 weeks)
Tempted to put (y) to bed with a bottle (x)? It's best not to if possible. Find out why here (baby age 27 weeks)
Tempted to prop (y) up with a bottle? This can be unsafe and you'd miss the chance for a cuddle!
Read more on bottle feeding here (baby age 16 weeks)
3. Delay introduction
  1. Mother begins regular (regular=more than twice a week for several continuous weeks) feeding of solid foods (ie, anything other than breast milk or formula) around 6 months of age

Belief that of solids to around 6 months but not before 4 months introduction of solids will help baby sleep through the night (motivation)Normative influence—everyone else seems to be starting solids at 4 months (motivation)Provide information and demonstrate skills to promote sleep and settling without non-nutritive feeding (education/training)
Provide information about consequences of early introduction of solids and benefits of delaying to 6 months (persuasion)
Provide information about signs of readiness to introduce solids (education)Provide support in managing other peoples expectation to start solids before 6 months (enablement)
Been told different advice on when to start solids? You're not alone. Watch the advice a dietitian gives a mum experiencing the same here (16 weeks)
Did you know starting solids early can affect your baby's health?
Until 6 months, milk is all (y) needs! See more on starting solids (baby age 13 weeks)
Did you know that introducing solids before 6 months probably won't help (y) sleep at night?
See some tips on sleep here (baby age 14 weeks)
Wondering if it's finally time to introduce solids? There are a few things that (y) might start doing when it's time—see here (baby age 20 weeks)
4. Healthy first foods
  1. Mother introduces healthy iron rich foods as first foods (eg, infant rice cereal, vegetables) (first foods defined as those foods that infants are given in the first month of eating solids)

  2. Mother doesn't introduce unhealthy high caloric, energy dense foods and drinks (eg, processed foods) as first foods

  3. Appropriate transition to family foods

  • Lack of cooking skills and reliance on commercial baby food

  • Lack of knowledge about high iron foods and how to prepare them

Demonstration cooking videos and recipes on how to prepare meals for baby based on family meals (education/training)
Provide information on high iron foods and how they can be prepared (education /training)
Provide information about and demonstrate with cooking videos how to change texture of foods for baby
Guess what (x)? It's time to start (y) on solids! First foods should be high in iron, like meat, fish or lentils—read more (baby age 22 weeks)
How are the solids going? Remember to keep on trying different healthy foods and to avoid those high in fat, sugar or salt. Some options here (baby age 25 weeks)
Isn't (y) growing quickly?
Make sure you change (y)'s food texture to help develop chewing and swallowing muscles. Read more here (baby age 29 weeks)
Are you stuck on what to feed (y) at each meal? Tap here for a recipe idea, you can use for the whole family! (baby age 33 weeks)
5. Promotes infant feeding practices for healthy growth
Mother exposes child to healthy new foods (exposure)
  1. Mother repeatedly exposes child to healthy foods, even if such foods are initially rejected by the child (repeated exposure).

  2. Mother feeds to appetite, that is, does not pressure child to eat more than s/he wants (pressure to eat)

  • Lack of knowledge about food preference development and addressing ‘fussy eating’ (capability)

  • Parents not aware of infants innate ability to self-regulate (capability)

  • Concern that baby is not getting enough milk/food for growth or sleep (motivation)

  • Normalise food rejection and provide strategies to manage (education/training)

  • Provide information about baby sleep patterns and non-feeding approaches to promoting sleep education/training)

Does (y) spit out new foods? This is normal! It can take 10–15 tries for babies to eat new foods—keep going! More on food rejection (baby age 26 weeks)
Wondering how much you should feed (y)? Tap here to learn about ‘Parents Provide, Babies Decide’ (baby age 33 weeks)