Table 1

Characteristics of the total study population of mother–child pairs (N=609)

Characteristics (n)BMI (kg/m2)p Value
18.5–24.925–29.9≥30
Number of participants342157110
Maternaln (%)n (%)n (%)
Age at delivery (years) (n=602) (range 17–44)
 <2014 (4.1)6 (3.9)5 (4.7)NS
 20–30154 (45.4)76 (48.7)52 (48.6)
 30–40159 (46.9)70 (44.9)45 (42.1)
 ≥4012 (3.5)4 (2.6)5 (4.7)
Ethnic group (n=329)
 White/European191 (91.4)69 (87.3)39 (95.1)NS
 Other18 (8.6)10 (12.7)2 (14.3)
Working status (n=301)
 Employed92 (82.1)56 (69.2)74 (43.5)***
 Unemployed9 (8)12 (14.8)11 (10.2)
 Homemaker4 (3.6)7 (8.6)19 (17.6)
 Other7 (6.3)6 (7.4)4 (3.7)
Deprivation score (588)
 1(most deprived)82 (24.8)27 (17.7)11 (10.6)***
 269 (20.9)31 (20.2)14 (13.5)
 349 (14.8)20 (13.1)16 (15.4)
 457 (17.2)38 (24.8)22 (21.2)
 5 (least deprived)74 (22.3)37 (24.2)41 (39.4)
Parity (n=353) (range 0–4)
 0108 (49.1)33 (37.9)15 (32.6)**
 1+112 (50.9)54 (62.1)31 (67.4)
Co morbidity within 3 years prior‡ (n=609)19 (5.5)15 (9.4)10 (9.3)*
Smoker (n=554)82 (26.7)36 (24.7)33 (32.7)NS
 Missing data35 (10.2)11 (7.0)9 (8.2)
Alcohol consumption (n=333)131 (39.4)39 (37.4)39 (48.2)NS
 Missing data131 (38.3)76 (48.4)69 (62.7)
Distress score† ≥12 (n=329)5 (4.6)4 (5.1)5 (4.7)*
 Missing data134 (39.2)77 (49.0)69 (62.7)
Infant
Male (609)190 (55.6)71 (45.2)56 (59.1)*
Gestational age (597) (range 30–43), weeks
 <3710 (2.9)10 (6.5)2 (1.9)***
 37–41312 (92.9)133 (86.4)99 (92.5)
 ≥4214 (4.2)11 (7.1)6 (5.6)
Birth weight (602) (range 2.2–5.1), kg
 <2.510 (2.9)4 (2.6)4 (3.7)**
 2.5–4288 (85.0)139 (89.1)85 (79.4)
 >441 (12.1)13 (8.3)18 (16.8)
  • ***p<0.001, **p<0.05, *p<0.1.

  • †Based on score of total Kessler 6 test.

  • ‡Based on the Charlson index.

  • BMI, body mass index; NS, not significant.