Table 1

Characteristics of included Indian studies on Menstrual Hygiene Management published between 2000 and 2015

VariableValuesNumber (%)
N=138
Type of materialArticle127 (92.0)
Report9 (6.5)
Thesis2 (1.5)
Year of publication20001 (0.7)
2001–20047 (5.1)
2005–200924 (17.4)
2010–201490 (65.2)
201516 (11.6)
Study designSurvey107 (77.5)
Before/after design*19 (13.8)
Mixed methods12 (8.7)
Study populationCompletely adolescent girls118 (85.5)
Partly adolescent girls20 (14.5)
SettingRural50 (36.2)
Urban48 (34.8)
Urban and rural30 (21.7)
Slum10 (7.3)
Location of recruitmentSchool82 (59.4)
Community45 (32.6)
Other†11 (8.0)
Method of data collectionSelf-administered69 (50.0)
Interview by study staff68 (49.3)
Not applicable1‡ (0.7)
Time period of study§Before 20005 (3.6)
2000–200417 (12.3)
2005–200935 (25.4)
2010–201481 (58.7)
Region¶North27 (19.7)
Central11 (8.0)
East19 (13.9)
West32 (23.4)
South48 (35.0)
Median sample size (range)322 (30–5000)
  • *Two studies with a before/after design had a mixed design (quantitative and qualitative components).

  • †Clinic 4, Hostel 2, Vocational training centre 2, School and community 2, not reported 1.

  • ‡In this study, girls were given the opportunity to ask questions on MHM, and the contents of questions were analysed.

  • §Estimated for 59 studies where this was not reported by using the median between last study year and publication year (2 years) for studies where the time of the study was reported (79 studies).

  • ¶North: New Delhi, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand; Central: Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh; East: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Meghalaya; West: Gujarat, Maharashtra; South: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Telangana. One study had a national sample (Anand 2015) and was not included here.15

  • MHM, Menstrual Hygiene Management.