Table 2

Pooled proportions of awareness of menarche, knowledge of menstruation, and sources of information about menarche and menstruation, overall and by setting, in Indian studies published between 2000 and 2015

Total pooledRuralUrbanSlumCombination
Factor*NProportion, 95% CINProportion, 95% CINProportion, 95% CINProportion, 95% CINProportion, 95% CI
 Aware of menarche880.48, 0.43 to 0.53390.45, 0.38 to 0.51370.53, 0.44 to 0.6250.26, 0.20 to 0.3370.60, 0.52 to 0.68
Information source on menarche among girls aware of menarche
 Mother430.52, 0.47 to 0.57150.52, 0.43 to 0.61180.50, 0.41 to 0.6040.59, 0.52 to 0.6550.55, 0.47 to 0.63
 Friends370.27, 0.22 to 0.32120.32, 0.23 to 0.42150.24, 0.17 to 0.3230.20, 0.14 to 0.2650.26, 0.16 to 0.37
 Relative†260.18, 0.15 to 0.21100.15, 0.09 to 0.23140.19, 0.14 to 0.2540.15, 0.03 to 0.3140.23, 0.17 to 0.28
 Teacher250.12, 0.07 to 0.1780.11, 0.05 to 0.20120.13, 0.05 to 0.2320.15, 0.09 to 0.2130.07, 0.03 to 0.11
 Media‡170.15, 0.09 to 0.2260.17, 0.06 to 0.3190.16, 0.06 to 0.28020.08, 0.00 to 0.25
 Health worker40.18, 0.00 to 0.6310.01, 0.00 to 0.0620.42, 0.00 to 1.0010.06, 0.01 to 0.190
Knowledge on menstruation and perception
 Uterus is a source of bleeding430.23, 0.16 to 0.30260.19, 0.12 to 0.27110.35, 0.18 to 0.5430.17, 0.06 to 0.3130.23, 0.03 to 0.52
 Menstruation is a normal phenomenon540.55, 0.47 to 0.63250.53, 0.39 to 0.66230.63, 0.51 to 0.7340.43, 0.30 to 0.5620.25, 0.13 to 0.38
Resources on menstruation among participants
 Mother410.54, 0.45 to 0.63170.53, 0.41 to 0.64170.58, 0.44 to 0.7040.49, 0.10 to 0.9030.45, 0.05 to 0.90
 Friend350.24, 0.18 to 0.30160.25, 0.19 to 0.32150.18, 0.11 to 0.2620.24, 0.00 to 0.7720.56, 0.07 to 0.98
 Relative†310.14, 0.10 to 0.19130.14, 0.10 to 0.19130.16, 0.08 to 0.2520.24, 0.11 to 0.4030.06, 0.02 to 0.13
 Teacher230.08, 0.05 to 0.11100.11, 0.05 to 0.1990.05, 0.03 to 0.0820.10, 0.08 to 0.1220.04, 0.02 to 0.07
 Media‡240.10, 0.06 to 0.15110.07, 0.03 to 0.11100.14, 0.07 to 0.2210.33, 0.30 to 0.3720.08, 0.00 to 0.30
 Health worker80.08, 0.05 to 0.1250.09, 0.05 to 0.1520.08, 0.05 to 0.1310.04, 0.02 to 0.080
  • *Other subgroup analyses and meta-regression for factors in this table: See online supplement S2, tables S2.2 and S2.3. For forest plots, see online supplement S3.

  • †Sisters or other relative.

  • ‡Books, movies, radio, magazines and internet.