Table 2

Summary characteristics and outcomes of smoking cessation interventions (further details are presented in online supplementary files 2–8)

Study IDStudy characteristicsDescriptionBaseline behaviourQuit rate*Global quality rating†Effectiveness‡Cost-effectiveness***Differential effects§
Bauld et al29Design: CBA
Duration: 52 weeks¶
Country: UK
Number of pharmacies: >200
Number of participants: 1785
Mean age: I: 44.0; C: 49.8
% female: I: 56.5; C: 65.5
Individual pharmacy-based NHS smoking cessation service + NRT21+ cigarettes/day: 396 (40.1%)38/1374 (2.8%)Weak?Yes both services compared to controlNR
Group community-based NHS smoking cessation service + NRT21+ cigarettes/day: 169 (41.6%)26/411 (6.3%)
Bock et al30Design: RCT
Duration: 26 weeks
Country: USA
Number of pharmacies: 2
Number of participants: 299
Mean age: I1: 45.5; I2: 46.5; C: 42.3
% female: 59.0
Smoking cessation training for pharmacists + tailored counselling using computer software + NRTNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 18.2;
Fagerström score: 5.3
28/100 (28.0%)ModerateNRNR
Smoking cessation training for pharmacists + tailored counselling using computer softwareNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 17.7;
Fagerström score: 5.1
15/100 (15.0%)
Observation only control (not randomised)Number of cigarettes smoked/day: 13.8;
Fagerström score: 4.9
8/99 (8.1%)
Burford et al31Design: RCT
Duration:26 weeks
Number of pharmacies:8
Number of participants:160
Mean age:I:24.2; C:25.1
% female: I:68.7; C:56.2
Smoking cessation advice + computer-generated photoageingFagerström score: 2.87;
>21 cigarettes/day smoked: 10%
11/80 (13.8%)ModerateYesNR
Smoking cessation adviceFagerström score: 2.96;
>21 cigarettes/day smoked: 15%
1/80 (1.3%)
Costello et al32Design: RCT
Duration:5 weeks
Number of pharmacies:98
Number of participants:6987
Mean age:NR
% female: I:54.4; C:54.9
1 week then fortnightly visit for NRT plus 3 sessions brief behavioural counsellingHSI ≥3: 91.8%612/3503 (17.5%)WeakNRNR
5 weeks NRT at initial visit plus 1 session brief behavioural counsellingHSI ≥ 3: 91.4%604/3350 (18.0%)
Crealey et al 1990<CE: Please check year is not matching with reference list.>Design:nRCT
Duration:26 weeks
Number of pharmacies:2
Number of participants:169
Mean age:NR
% female: NR
Behavioural support, 67% (35/52) nicotine gumNR24/52 (46.2%)WeakYesNR
Nicotine gum onlyNR3/48 (6.3%)
Control (expressed wish to stop smoking)NR0/60 (0%)
p<0.01 (I vs C)
Hoving et al34Design: RCT
Duration:52 weeks
Number of pharmacies:65
Number of participants:545
Mean age:I:46; C:47
% female: I:53; C:54
Computer-generated tailored adviceNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 222/256 (0.8%)StrongNRNR
‘Thank you’ letter controlNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 212/289 (0.7%)
Howard-Pitney et al35Design: RCT
Duration:26 weeks
Number of pharmacies:5
Number of participants:410
Mean age:I:36.3; C:34.7
% female: I:1; C:1
Advice and support + nicotine patchNumber of cans chewed/week: 3.978/206 (37.9%)ModerateNRNR
Advice and support + placebo patchNumber of cans chewed/week: 4.169/204 (33.8%)
Maguire et al36Design: RCT
Duration:52 weeks
Number of pharmacies:51
Number of participants:484
Mean age:I:42; C:38
% female: I:40; C:44
Behavioural support, 87% (230/265) NRTNumber of participants 10–20 cigarettes/day: 197/26538/265 (14.3%)WeakNRNR
Ad hoc advice, 84% (183/219) NRTNumber of participants 10–20 cigarettes/day: 121/2196/219 (2.7%)
p < 0.001
Mochizuki et al37Design: RCT
Duration:12 weeks
Number of pharmacies:14
Number of participants:28
Mean age:I:44.1; C:49.1
% female: I:18.2; C:18.8
Nicotine gum plus advice on usage, initial and follow-up cessation adviceNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 23.0;
Fagerström score: 4.56
5/11 (45.5%)StrongNRNR
Nicotine gum plus advise on usageNumber of cigarettes smoked/day: 25.7;
Fagerström score: 6.31
5/16 (31.3%)
OR=1.83, NS
Sinclair et al38Design: RCT
Duration:36 weeks
Number of pharmacies:62
Number of participants:492
Mean age:I:41.7; C:41.5
% female: I:61.2; C:62.7
Training pharmacists/assistants in smoking cessation behaviour change + NRTFagerström score: 5.226/217 (12.0%)StrongYesNR
Standard professional pharmacy support + NRTFagerström score: 5.219/257 (7.4%)
Sonderskov et al40Design: RCT
Duration:26 weeks
Number of pharmacies:42
Number of participants:522
Mean age:I(21 mg):39.1; C(21 mg):39.9; I(14 mg):38.2; C(14 mg):38.9
% female: I(21 mg):47.5; C(21 mg):52.5; I(14 mg):51.7; C(14 mg):48.3
21 mg nicotine patchesFagerström score: 7.015/132 (11.4%)Strong↑ 21 mg;
↔ 14 mg
NRNo (gender)
PlaceboFagerström score: 8.16/142 (4.2%)
14 mg nicotine patchesFagerström score: 6.127/119 (22.7%)
PlaceboFagerström score: 6.123/125 (18.4%)
Vial et al39Design: RCT
Duration:52 weeks
Number of pharmacies:9
Number of participants:102
Mean age:51.0
% female: I1:41; I2:54; C:36
Pharmacy-based nicotine patches plus weekly counsellingFagerström score: 5.794/21 (19.0%)WeakNRNR
Hospital outpatient clinic nicotine patches plus weekly counsellingFagerström score: 5.945/21 (23.8%)
Minimal intervention (written and verbal information at baseline)Fagerström score: 6.331/22 (4.5%)
  • *p Values were extracted directly from the study papers and relate to between group difference.

  • †Global rating: ‘strong’=no ‘weak’ ratings, ‘moderate’=one ‘weak’ rating and ‘weak’=two or more ‘weak’ ratings.

  • ‡effectiveness was assessed using between group differences.

  • §Differential effects: age, gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation or poverty).

  • ¶From baseline to last follow-up.

  • ?, Unable to assess effectiveness/cost-effectiveness; ↑, intervention effective; ↓, intervention not effective; ↔, no statistically significant between group difference; C, control group; CBA, controlled before-after study; Fagerström score, 0–10, higher score=greater nicotine dependence; HIS, Heaviness of Smoking Index, higher score indicates greater number of cigarettes smoked per day and smoking first cigarette within 5 min of waking; I, intervention group; NHS, National Health Service; NR, not reported; nRCT, non-randomised controlled trial; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy; NS, non-significant; RCT, randomised controlled trial.