Table 1

Characteristics of study participants by types of jobs

Processing gemstones (n=51)Making large decorations (n=56)Making vases (n=77)Making urns (n=44)Making small decorations (n=156)Making sculptures (n=58)Manufacturing building materials (n=46)
Men, %57504843385354
Age (years), mean (SD)51.4 (8.2)50.4 (7.5)53.4 (7.8)51.5 (9.6)53.1 (8.0)49.4 (8.0)50.5 (9.7)
Duration of stone work (years)
 Mean (SD)19.9 (11.7)17.5 (11.0)20.5 (11.1)17.5 (10.2)19.3 (10.8)20.5 (9.6)12.6 (9.9)
 Categorical, %
 <2049594457534367
 ≥2051415643475733
Cigarette smoking, %
 Never smoked†51676575736567
 Former smoker85109474
 Current smoker41272516232628
Workplace, %
 Outdoors/canopy92989693959596
 Enclosed room6247432
Subjective noise exposure at work, %86868784919596
Use of epoxy adhesives at work, %71827073628172
Use of organic solvent respirators, %
 Never92919698967898
 Occasionally4532292
 Usually44102140
Use of earplugs or earmuffs at work, %
 Never88828786855985
 Occasionally4557899
 Usually813878337
Noise in 8 h TWA (dBA), mean (SD)80.1‡89.0 (15.1)87.6 (11.4)85.7 (7.7)91.2 (6.6)84.7 (12.1)91.3 (3.3)
Occupational hearing loss, %39434234333630
  • The sum of all of the types of work is greater than the number of study participants because some workers held more than one type of job.

  • †Never smoked means having smoked less than 20 packs of cigarettes in a lifetime or less than 1 cigarette per day for 1 year.

  • ‡One sample.