Table 1

Prevalence of IGR, undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes; total diabetes and per cent undiagnosed; by sociodemographic indicators, with 95% CIs

 NNormoglycaemia
% (CI)
IGR
% (CI)
Undiagnosed diabetes % (CI)*Diagnosed diabetes
% (CI)
All diabetes
% (CI)
Undiagnosed as per cent of all diabetes
All18 39982 (81 to 82)11 (11 to 12)1.6 (1.5 to 1.8)6 (5 to 6)7 (7 to 8)23 (21–25)
Sex p=0.24p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.82
 Men828081 (80 to 82)11 (10 to 12)1.9 (1.6 to 2.2)6 (6 to 7)8 (8 to 9)23 (20–26)
 Women10 11982 (82 to 83)11 (11 to 12)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)5 (4 to 5)6 (6 to 7)23 (20–26)
Age groupp<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.26
 16–24126797 (96 to 98)2 (1 to 3)0.1 (0.0 to 0.4)1 (0 to 2)1 (0 to 2)12 (3–38)
 25–34222496 (95 to 97)3 (2 to 3)0.4 (0.2 to 0.8)1 (1 to 2)2 (1 to 2)25 (13–43)
 35–44325491 (90 to 92)6 (5 to 7)1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)2 (2 to 3)3 (3 to 4)32 (22–43)
 45–54360081 (80 to 83)12 (11 to 13)1.6 (1.1 to 2.1)5 (4 to 6)7 (6 to 8)23 (17–30)
 55–64335471 (69 to 73)18 (16 to 19)2.8 (2.3 to 3.5)8 (7 to 9)11 (10 to 12)25 (21–30)
 65–74287863 (61 to 65)22 (20 to 23)3.2 (2.6 to 4.0)12 (11 to 14)15 (14 to 17)21 (17–25)
 75+182252 (49 to 54)29 (27 to 31)3.9 (3.1 to 5.0)16 (14 to 18)20 (18 to 22)20 (16–25)
HSE year (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p=0.17p=0.01p=0.12p=0.03p=0.04
 2009229083 (81 to 85)11 (10 to 12)1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)5 (4 to 5)6 (5 to 7)26 (19–34)
 2010385682 (80 to 83)12 (11 to 13)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)5 (5 to 6)6 (6 to 7)16 (12–21)
 2011390280 (79 to 82)12 (11 to 13)2.1 (1.7 to 2.6)6 (5 to 7)8 (7 to 9)26 (20–31)
 2012388683 (81 to 84)10 (9 to 11)1.9 (1.5 to 2.4)5 (5 to 6)7 (6 to 8)27 (22–32)
 2013446582 (81 to 83)11 (10 to 12)1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)6 (5 to 7)7 (7 to 8)20 (16–25)
Occupation (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p=0.02p<0.01p<0.01p=0.16
 Managerial/professional665684 (83 to 85)10 (9 to 11)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)5 (4 to 5)6 (5 to 6)22 (18–27)
 Intermediate270084 (82 to 85)10 (9 to 12)1.2 (0.8 to 1.9)5 (4 to 6)6 (5 to 8)19 (12–28)
 Small employers/own account workers162683 (80 to 85)11 (9 to 14)1.7 (1.2 to 2.5)4 (3 to 6)6 (5 to 8)26 (17–37)
 Lower supervisory/technical132481 (78 to 83)13 (11 to 15)2.3 (1.5 to 3.4)4 (3 to 6)7 (5 to 8)34 (24–46)
 Semiroutine534979 (77 to 80)12 (11 to 13)2.0 (1.6 to 2.5)7 (6 to 8)9 (8 to 10)23 (19–28)
Equivalised household income (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.70
 Highest quintile344686 (85 to 87)10 (8 to 11)1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)3 (3 to 4)4 (4 to 5)22 (16–31)
 Second highest351485 (84 to 87)9 (8 to 11)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)4 (3 to 5)5 (4 to 6)27 (20–35)
 Third321583 (81 to 84)11 (10 to 12)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)5 (4 to 6)6 (5 to 7)20 (15–26)
 Second lowest295279 (77 to 81)12 (11 to 13)2.0 (1.5 to 2.6)7 (6 to 8)9 (8 to 11)22 (17–28)
 Lowest quintile239477 (75 to 79)14 (12 to 15)2.2 (1.7 to 2.9)7 (6 to 8)9 (8 to 11)0 (0–0)
Highest qualification (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.07
 Degree or above454885 (84 to 86)10 (9 to 11)0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)4 (3 to 5)5 (4 to 6)16 (11–23)
 NVQ3/A level to below degree481283 (81 to 84)10 (9 to 11)1.9 (1.5 to 2.3)5 (4 to 6)7 (6 to 8)27 (22–33)
 Other507382 (81 to 83)11 (10 to 12)1.6 (1.3 to 2.1)5 (5 to 6)7 (6 to 8)23 (18–29)
 None394976 (74 to 78)14 (13 to 16)2.2 (1.7 to 2.8)8 (7 to 9)10 (9 to 11)22 (17–27)
Quintiles of area deprivation (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.12
 Least deprived409386 (84 to 87)10 (9 to 11)1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)4 (3 to 4)5 (4 to 5)20 (14 to 26)
 Second lowest417684 (82 to 85)10 (9 to 11)1.8 (1.4 to 2.2)4 (4 to 5)6 (5 to 7)29 (23 to 35)
 Middle385082 (80 to 83)11 (10 to 12)1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)5 (5 to 6)7 (6 to 8)23 (18–29)
 Second highest335479 (78 to 81)12 (11 to 13)1.8 (1.4 to 2.4)7 (6 to 8)9 (8 to 10)20 (15–26)
 Most deprived292677 (75 to 78)13 (11 to 14)2.1 (1.7 to 2.7)9 (8 to 10)11 (10 to 12)21 (16–26)
Ethnic specific BMI category† (age and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.79
 Not overweight562289 (88 to 90)8 (8 to 9)0.6 (0.4 to 0.8)2 (2 to 3)3 (2 to 3)19 (14–27)
 Overweight663385 (84 to 86)10 (9 to 11)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)4 (3 to 4)5 (4 to 6)22 (18–27)
 Obese 1311874 (72 to 76)15 (14 to 17)2.6 (2.1 to 3.2)8 (7 to 9)11 (10 to 12)25 (19–31)
 Obese 2100667 (64 to 71)16 (13 to 19)3.9 (2.8 to 5.6)13 (11 to 15)17 (14 to 20)24 (16–34)
 Morbidly obese42955 (47 to 62)20 (15 to 25)6.0 (3.8 to 9.4)20 (15 to 26)26 (20 to 32)24 (15–38)
Ethnic-specific waist‡ (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.42
 Low590590 (89 to 90)8 (7 to 9)0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)2 (2 to 2)2 (2 to 3)19 (12–27)
 High445185 (84 to 87)10 (9 to 11)1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)4 (3 to 4)5 (4 to 5)23 (17–30)
 Very high775775 (74 to 77)14 (13 to 15)2.6 (2.3 to 3.1)8 (7 to 9)11 (10 to 12)25 (21–29)
Ethnic group (age-standardised and sex-standardised)p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p<0.01p=0.80
 White16 97783 (82 to 84)10 (10 to 11)1.5 (1.3 to 1.7)5 (5 to 5)7 (6 to 7)22 (20–25)
 Mixed18281 (71 to 88)10 (5 to 17)3.5 (0.7 to 15.6)6 (3 to 12)10 (5 to 19)
 Asian74865 (61 to 70)19 (16 to 23)3.3 (2.1 to 5.2)12 (9 to 16)16 (12–20)
 Black35168 (61 to 74)17 (13 to 21)1.5 (0.6 to 3.6)14 (9 to 20)15 (11 to 21)
 Other12272 (60 to 81)13 (7 to 23)3.0 (0.6 to 14.3)12 (6 to 23)15 (8 to 27)
 All non-white140368 (65 to 72)16 (14 to 19)3.1 (2.0 to 4.7)12 (10 to 15)15 (13 to 19)21 (14–30)
  • *To show variation in the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, this is presented to one dp.

  • †Black and Asian participants: overweight: BMI 23 to <27.5 kg/m2; obese I: BMI 27.5 to <32.5 kg/m2; obese II: BMI 32.5 to <37.5 kg/m2; morbidly obese: BMI ≥37.5 kg/m2; other participants: overweight: BMI 25 to <30 kg/m2; obese I: BMI 30 to <35 kg/m2; obese II: BMI 35 to <40 kg/m2; morbidly obese: BMI ≥40 kg/m2.

  • ‡Black and Asian men: low <90 cm, high 90–102 cm, very high >102 cm; all other men: low <94 cm; high 94–102 cm; very high >102 cm; women (regardless of ethnicity): low <80 cm, high 80–88 cm, very high >88 cm.

  • BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); HSE, Health Survey for England; IGR, impaired glucose regulation.