Table 3

Linear associations between patient-centred care and outcomes at 1- and 5-year follow-up in ADDITION-Plus cohort

Changes from 0 to 1 years of follow-upChanges from 1 to 5 years of follow-up
VariableNCoefficient95% CIp ValueCoefficient95% CIp Value
Self-reported measures
 Total activity energy expenditure (MET h/day)3710.0800.0170.1430.01−0.037−0.3180.2430.79
 Sedentary time (min/day)371−1.633−2.897−0.3680.010.014−0.0100.0370.25
 Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (min/day)3715.3280.7969.8590.01−0.241−0.8800.4000.46
 Energy intake (kJ/day)3710.920−3.9605.8100.710.0120.0010.0010.51
 Alcohol per week (units)3710.022−0.0370.0810.47−0.022−0.0850.0410.49
Objectively measured health behaviours
 Physical activity energy expenditure (kJ/kg/day)*308−0.001−0.1660.1640.99−0.0140.850−0.1000.08
 Plasma vitamin C (µmol/L)303−0.231−0.462<0.0010.05−0.040−0.1000.0200.17
Clinical and biochemical measures
 HbA1c (%)†387−0.006−0.0150.0040.230.004−0.0050.0130.39
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)‡396−0.561−0.653−0.4680.010.107−0.0530.2670.19
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)‡396−0.565−0.654−0.4760.010.064−0.0310.1590.19
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)§3900.002−0.0060.0110.580.001−0.0080.0100.83
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)§3900.0020.0010.0040.03−0.002−0.0040.0010.17
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)§3900.0070.0010.0140.070.001−0.0070.0070.99
 Waist circumference (cm)383−0.060−0.1200.0110.070.0850.0150.1550.02
 BMI (kg/m²)383−0.010−0.0310.0060.190.013−0.0100.0360.27
 Modelled UKPDS 10-year cardiovascular risk¶3900.001−0.001<0.0010.540.001−0.0010.0010.51
  • *Measured at 1-year only.

  • †Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, social class and hypoglycaemic medication.

  • ‡Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, social class and antihypertensive medication.

  • §Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, social class and lipid-lowering therapy.

  • ¶Adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, social class, lipid-lowering therapy, antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic medication.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study.