TableĀ 1

Quality assessment of studies with quantitative design

Wolff and Bourke22Hendrie et al23Patterson et al37*Clunas et al24van Noord et al25Patterson et al26Patterson et al27Flowerdew et al38*Jaynes et al39*Evans et al28Zwart et al29Reznek and Barton30Pham et al31Jones et al32Patterson et al33Shaw et al34
Question/objective sufficiently described?2221221122222222
Study design evident and appropriate?2122222122222221
Method of subject/comparison group selection or source of information/input variables described and appropriate?1120222122122111
Subject characteristics sufficiently described?2221221112212111
If interventional and random allocation was possible, was it described?NANANANANANANANANA20NANA1NANA
If interventional and blinding of investigators was possible, was it reported?0NANANANANANANANA2NANANANA2NA
If interventional and blinding of subjects was possible, was it reported?0NANANANANANANANA2NANANANANANA
Outcome and exposure measure(s) well defined and robust to measurement/misclassification bias? Means of assessment reported?2212122112222111
Sample size appropriate?2111112122222021
Analytic methods described/justified and appropriate?1222221112222220
Is some estimate of variance reported for the main results?2202122002022020
Controlled for confounding?01NANANA110NA21NA20NA0
Results reported in sufficient detail?2222222122122221
Conclusions supported by the results?2222221122222122
Total points1818161517201791528171922131910
Max points possible26222020202222222028242022242222
Summary score, in percentage (%)6982807585917741751007195100548646
  • NA, not available.

  • *Study using quantitative and qualitative research methods.