Objectives The association between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis remains controversial. We sought to define the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals of Vietnamese background.
Design and setting Cross-sectional study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Participants The study involved 1460 individuals (559 men) aged 50 years and older (average age 59 years) who were randomly recruited from the community.
Outcome measures BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured using a Philips Ultrasonography (HD7XE). The presence of atherosclerotic plaque was ascertained for each individual. The association between cIMT and BMD was analysed by a multiple linear regression model.
Results In unadjusted analysis, cIMT was positively associated with femoral neck BMD in men (p=0.005), but not in women (p=0.242). After adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes and hypertension, the association remained statistically significant in men (partial R2=0.005; p=0.015) but not in women (partial R2=0.008; p=0.369). When the analysis was limited to individuals aged 60 years and older, the association between cIMT and BMD was no longer statistically significant. There was no statistically significant association between cIMT and lumbar spine BMD in either men or women.
Conclusions In Vietnamese individuals aged 50 years and older, there is a clinically non-significant but statistically significant association between carotid intima-media thickness and BMD in men, not in women.
- Bone mineral density
- Carotid intima media thickness
- Vietnam osteoporosis study
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors TVN and LTH-P designed the study. LTH-P, LTN, VNP and PMNC collected the data. TVN, LTH-P and LTN were responsible for data analysis. LTN and PMNC prepared the first draft of manuscript. TVN and LTH-P revised manuscript. All authors approved the final version of manuscript.
Funding The Vietnam Osteoporosis Study was partly funded by Foundation for Science and Technology Development of Ton Duc Thang University (FOSTECT, http://fostect.tdt.edu.vn), grant number FOSTECT.2014.BR.09, and a grant from the Department of Science and Technology of Ho Chi Minh City.
Disclaimer The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests LTH-P reports grants by Foundation for Science and Technology Development of Ton Duc Thang University (FOSTECT, http://fostect.tdt.edu.vn), grant number FOSTECT.2014.BR.09, and a grant from the Department of Science and Technology of Ho Chi Minh City during the conduct of the study.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Tam Duc Heart Hospital research committee.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.