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Epidemiological characteristics of elevated blood pressure among middle and high school students aged 12–17 years: a cross-sectional study in Jiangsu Province, China, 2017–2018
  1. Xiyan Zhang1,
  2. Jie Yang1,
  3. Yan Wang1,
  4. Weina Liu1,
  5. Wenyi Yang1,
  6. Liuwei Gao1,2,
  7. Rainer Schwertz3,
  8. Andreas Welker3,
  9. Fengyun Zhang1,
  10. Yonglin Zhou1
  1. 1 Jiangsu Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China
  2. 2 School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
  3. 3 Local Health Authority Rhein-Neckar-Kreis, Heidelberg, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Dr Fengyun Zhang; 434908934{at}; Dr Yonglin Zhou; jsepipublic{at}


Objective In this study, we aimed to present the epidemiological characteristics of elevated blood pressure among middle and high school students aged 12–17 years in Jiangsu Province.

Setting Hypertension, which is considered a rare disease in children, is an important early precursor to long-term cardiovascular damage, and elevated blood pressure in childhood is a strong predictor of hypertension in adulthood.

Participants Physical examination and questionnaire investigation among children aged 12–17 years in Jiangsu Province were conducted from 2017 to 2018.

Main outcome measures Physical measurements included height, weight, blood pressure and history of menarche/first spermatorrhoea. Questionnaire investigation included family type, delivery mode, lifestyle habits and psychological test.

Results In our study we investigated 17 791 middle and high school students, consisting of 8701 female students and 9090 male students. The prevalence of screening elevated blood pressure among students aged 12–17 years was 20.0% (95% CI 19.2% to 20.9%) for female students and 22.3% (95% CI 21.5% to 23.2%) for male students. The prevalence of screening elevated blood pressure for urban male middle and high school students was higher than that of elevated blood pressure for rural male middle and high school students. However, similar phenomenon cannot be observed among female students. For both male and female students, body mass index (BMI), obesity/overweight and menarche/first spermatorrhoea can be a risk factor contributing to elevated blood pressure, and sleep time and regional distribution might be important factors that need to be investigated in depth.

Conclusion We found a relatively high prevalence of screening elevated blood pressure among students aged 12–17 years for both female and male students in Jiangsu Province. The risk factors can be BMI, obesity/overweight and menarche/first spermatorrhoea.

  • elevated blood pressure
  • middle and high school students
  • jiangsu province

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  • Contributors Data curation: XZ. Investigation: JY, WY. Methodology: YW. Project administration: WL. Software: LG. Article modification: RS, AW. Supervision: FZ, YZ. Writing the original draft: XZ, JY.

  • Funding This research was supported by the Demonstration Project of Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases (BE2015714) The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Map disclaimer The depiction of boundaries on the map(s) in this article do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ (or any member of its group) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. The map(s) are provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Ethics approval The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, while we were informed that approval by an ethical committee was not necessary.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.

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