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Type and density of independent takeaway outlets: a geographical mapping study in a low socioeconomic ward, Manchester
  1. Jennifer Blow1,
  2. Rebecca Gregg1,
  3. Ian G Davies2,
  4. Sumaiya Patel1
  1. 1 Health Professionals, Faculty of Health Psychology and Social Care, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
  2. 2 Education, Health and Community, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Rebecca Gregg; r.gregg{at}


Objectives The socioeconomic disparity in childhood and early adult obesity prevalence has been well characterised. Takeaway outlets may cluster in lower socioeconomic areas and their proximity to schools is of concern. This study aimed to map takeaway food outlets, characterise takeaway types and their proximity to educational institutions within a low socioeconomic ward in Manchester.

Design The Rusholme ward and a 2 km Euclidean buffer were included as the study area. Local authority Environmental Health data were used to map the takeaway outlets, using QGIS V.2.18.0 ( LLC, Einsiedeln, Switzerland). The types of takeaway outlets and major roads were included. Number of outlets within a 400 m Euclidean walking buffer of educational institutions were mapped.

Setting Rusholme, Manchester, UK.

Results Within the study area, 202 takeaway food outlets were identified and mapped as cluster points. Of these, 62.3% are located on major (A and B) roads, while the remaining outlets were located on minor roads. The majority (57.4%) of takeaway outlets sold similar items (fried chicken, burgers, pizzas, kebabs), with the remainder offering more diverse menus. Of the 53 schools, colleges and universities within the study area, 28 (52.8%) had 1–5 takeaway food outlets within 400 m, 9 (17.0%) had 6–10 outlets; 4 (7.5%) more than 11 outlets with 12 (22.6%) having zero outlets within 400 m.

Conclusion Within this low socioeconomic area, there was a high concentration of takeaway food outlets, predominantly along major roads and in easy walking distance of educational establishments with the majority offering similar foods. In addition, a high proportion of these outlets were in easy walking distance of educational establishments. Public health policy needs to consider the implications of current takeaway food outlets and not just the proliferation of these outlets with current planning laws.

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  • Contributors JB collected the data, performed the qualitative analysis and wrote the first draft of the paper. RG designed the methods and secured the funding. SP contributed to the analysis and edited drafts and IGD contributed to interpretation of data.

  • Funding The work presented in this paper was funded by an internal MMU Research Accelerators Grant, and used to fund a Masters by Research project.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Extra data are available by emailing

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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