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Staying Quit After Release (SQuARe) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention to maintain smoking abstinence after release from smoke-free prisons in Victoria, Australia
  1. Jesse T Young1,2,3,4,
  2. Cheneal Puljević1,5,6,
  3. Alexander D Love1,
  4. Emilia K Janca1,
  5. Catherine J Segan1,7,
  6. Donita Baird7,8,
  7. Rachel Whiffen7,
  8. Stan Pappos9,
  9. Emma Bell9,
  10. Stuart A Kinner1,2,6,10,11,12
  1. 1 Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3 School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  4. 4 National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  5. 5 Centre for Health Services Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  6. 6 Griffith Criminology Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  7. 7 Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  8. 8 School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  9. 9 Australian Community Support Organisation, Richmond, Victoria, Australia
  10. 10 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  11. 11 Mater Research Institute-UQ, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  12. 12 Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Jesse T Young; jesse.young{at}unimelb.edu.au

Abstract

Introduction Smoke-free policies have been introduced in prisons internationally. However, high rates of relapse to smoking after release from prison indicate that these policies typically result in short-term smoking cessation only. These high rates of relapse, combined with a lack of investment in relapse prevention, highlight a missed opportunity to improve the health of a population who smoke tobacco at two to six times the rate of the general population. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial, testing the effectiveness of a caseworker-delivered intervention promoting smoking cessation among former smokers released from smoke-free prisons in Victoria, Australia.

Methods and analysis The multicomponent, brief intervention consists of behavioural counselling, provision of nicotine spray and referral to Quitline and primary care to promote use of government-subsidised smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. The intervention is embedded in routine service delivery and is administered at three time points: one prerelease and two postrelease from prison. Control group participants will receive usual care. Smoking abstinence will be assessed at 1 and 3 months postrelease, and confirmed with carbon monoxide breath testing. Linkage of participant records to survey and routinely collected administrative data will provide further information on postrelease use of health services and prescribed medication.

Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Corrections Victoria Research Committee, the Victorian Department of Justice Human Research Ethics Committee, the Department of Human Services External Request Evaluation Committee and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be submitted to major international health-focused journals. In case of success, findings will assist policymakers to implement urgently needed interventions promoting the maintenance of prison-initiated smoking abstinence after release, to reduce the health disparities experienced by this marginalised population.

Trial registration number ACTRN12618000072213; Pre-results.

  • tobacco
  • smoking cessation
  • smoke-free policy
  • prison

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors SAK, JTY, CP, ADL, EKJ, CJS, DB, RW, SP and EB contributed to the conceptualisation and design of the project. JTY, CP, ADL, EKJ, CJS, DB, RW, SP and SAK contributed to drafting and editing the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This trial is funded by a VicHealth Innovation Research Grant.

  • Disclaimer The funder had no role in the study design; collection, management, analysis or interpretation of data; writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval This study has received approval from the Corrections Victoria Research Committee, the Victorian Department of Justice Human Research Ethics Committee (ref: CF/17/27939), the Department of Human Services External Request Evaluation Committee (ref: MI8417) and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee (ref: 1851417).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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