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Western Australian pregnancy cohort (Raine) Study: Generation 1
  1. Manon L Dontje1,
  2. Peter Eastwood2,
  3. Leon Straker3
  1. 1School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  2. 2Centre for Sleep Science, School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  3. 3School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Manon L Dontje; dr.m.l.dontje{at}


Purpose The purpose of the Raine Study is to improve human health and well-being by studying the life-course of a cohort of Western Australians, based on a life-course conceptual framework that considers interactions between genetics, phenotypes, behaviours, the environment and developmental and social outcomes.

Participants Between May 1989 and November 1991, 2900 pregnant women were enrolled in the Raine Study in Perth, Western Australia. In total, 2730 women gave birth to 2868 children (Generation 2) between August 1989 and April 1992. The mothers and fathers of Generation 2 are referred to as Generation 1 of the Raine Study. In the most recent Generation 1 follow-up, 636 mothers and 462 fathers participated.

Findings to date Until the 26-year follow-up of Generation 1 the focus of research within the Raine Study was on outcomes in Generation 2, with information on the parents mainly being used to examine its influence on their children’s outcomes. For example, recent findings showed that several characteristics of mothers, such as obesity, early mid-gestational weight gain and socioeconomic status were associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, adiposity and cardiometabolic characteristics in offspring. Other findings showed that parents with back pain were more likely to have offspring who experienced back pain. Also, non-linear and dynamic relationships were found between maternal working hours and offspring overweight or obesity.

Future plans The Raine Study will continue to provide access to its dense longitudinal genetic, phenotypic, behavioural, environmental, developmental and social data to undertake studies with the ultimate goal of improving human health and well-being. Analyses of data from the recent Generation 1 year 26 follow-up are underway.

Trial registration number ACTRN12617001599369

  • Raine Study
  • multi-generational
  • observational
  • longitudinal
  • health
  • life-course
  • pregnancy

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  • Contributors MLD wrote the manuscript and performed the analyses, PE and LS are the (scientific) directors of the Raine Study and contributed significantly to the design and acquisition of the Raine Study and revised this manuscript critically. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of this work.

  • Funding The Raine Study receives core funding support from The University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Telethon Kids Institute, Women and Infants Research Foundation, Edith Cowan University, Murdoch University, The University of Notre Dame Australia and the Raine Medical Research Foundation. Funding of data collection and processing of data has been provided by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (#880441, 930745, 963209, 211912, 003209, 32300, 403981, 353514, 458623, 403968, 572613, 1084947,1080492), and in chronological order: King Edward Memorial Hospital Research Foundation, Raine Medical Research Foundation, Glaxo Wellcome, The Asthma Foundation of Western Australia, Healthway (#6006, 14123), Telstra Foundation, Cardiovascular Lipid Pfizer Grant, Australian Arthritis Foundation, The Stanley Trust (UK), Ada Bartholomew Medical Research Trust, Gastroenterology Society of Australia, Fremantle Hospital Medical Research Foundation, Women and Infants Research Foundation, Rotary Health Research, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, National Heart Foundation, Channel 7 Telethon Trust, Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation, Dairy Health and Nutrition Consortium, Danish Council for Strategic Studies, Smarttots, Asthma Foundation, Western Australia Department of Health Future Health Fund, Western Australia Department of Health Targeted Research Fund. Storage of biosamples has been enabled by substantial in-kind support from King Edward Memorial Hospital, Telethon Kids Institute and Royal Perth Hospital.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The Raine Study encourages collaboration with national and international researchers. More details about the Raine Study, data and how to get access to the data are published on the website of the Raine Study (

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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