Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Cohort profile: the Australian Longitudinal Study of Adults with Autism (ALSAA)
  1. Samuel Arnold1,2,
  2. Kitty-Rose Foley2,3,
  3. Ye In (Jane) Hwang1,2,
  4. Amanda L Richdale2,4,
  5. Mirko Uljarevic2,4,5,
  6. Lauren P Lawson2,4,
  7. Ru Ying Cai2,4,
  8. Torbjorn Falkmer2,6,
  9. Marita Falkmer2,6,7,
  10. Nick G Lennox2,8,
  11. Anna Urbanowicz2,8,9,
  12. Julian Trollor1,2
  1. 1 Department of Developmental Disability Neuropsychiatry (3DN), UNSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  2. 2 Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  3. 3 School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Bilinga, Queensland, Australia
  4. 4 Olga Tennison Autism Research Centre, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5 Stanford Autism Center, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  6. 6 School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  7. 7 School of Education and Communication, CHILD Programme, Institution of Disability Research, Jonkoping University, Jonkoping, Sweden
  8. 8 Queensland Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Mater Research Institute - UQ, University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  9. 9 Health, Society & Medicine Research Program, Social and Global Studies Centre, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Professor Julian Trollor; J.Trollor{at}


​Purpose There is a significant knowledge gap regarding the lives of adults on the autism spectrum. Some literature suggests significant health and mental health inequalities for autistic adults, yet there is a lack of comprehensive longitudinal studies exploring risk factors. Further, most research does not include the perspective of autistic adults in its conduct or design. Here, we describe the baseline characteristics and inclusive research approach of a nationwide longitudinal study.

​Participants The Autism Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism’s Australian Longitudinal Study of Adults with Autism (ALSAA) is a questionnaire-based longitudinal study of autistic adults (25+ years old) with follow-up at 2-year intervals. Autistic advisors were involved in each stage of research apart from data analysis. Three questionnaires were developed: self-report, informant report (ie, proxy report) and carers (ie, carer experiences and characteristics).

​Findings to date An inclusive research protocol was developed and agreed with autistic advisors. Baseline data were collected from 295 autistic adults (M=41.8 years, SD=12.0) including 42 informant responses, 146 comparison participants and 102 carers. The majority of autistic participants (90%) had been diagnosed in adulthood (M=35.3 years, SD=15.1). When compared with controls, autistic adults scored higher on self-report measures of current depression and anxiety. Participant comments informed ongoing data gathering. Participants commented on questionnaire length, difficulty with literal interpretation of forced response items and expressed gratitude for research in this area.

​Future plans A large comprehensive dataset relating to autistic adults and their carers has been gathered, creating a good platform for longitudinal follow-up repeat surveys and collaborative research. Several outputs are in development, with focus on health service barriers and usage, caregivers, impact of diagnosis in adulthood, further scale validations, longitudinal analyses of loneliness, suicidal ideation, mental illness risk factors and other areas. Baseline data confirm poorer mental health of autistic adults. The ALSAA demonstrates a working approach to inclusive research.

  • autism
  • longitudinal
  • adult

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

View Full Text

Statistics from


  • SA and K-RF are joint first authors.

  • Twitter @3DN_UNSW

  • Contributors Manuscript drafting was jointly led by SA and K-RF. All authors (YI(J)H, ALR, MU, LPL, RYC, TF, MF, NGL, AU and JT) had a role in the conduct of the research, interpretation of results, drafting of manuscript and critical review of the manuscript. SA, K-RF, YI(J)H, ALR, MU and JT conducted data analysis and reporting. K-RF, YI(J)H, ALR, MU, RYC, TF, MF, NGL, AU and JT were involved in the conceptualisation of the study.

  • Funding This work was supported by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee at UNSW Sydney, Australia (No. HC15001).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.