Objective This study determines the magnitude and pattern of animal-related injury mortalities and morbidities in rural Bangladesh.
Design and setting A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 51 Unions of 7 subdistricts of Bangladesh from June 2013 to September 2013.
Participants A total of approximately 1.17 million individuals across all age and gender profiles were included in the survey. The participants had to be residents of the seven subdistricts and have provided consent to participate in the study.
Primary and secondary outcome measures Animal-related injury characteristics and demographic information was collected in the study. Frequency, proportion and 95% CIs of variables such as type of animal, type of animal attack, activity of the person prior to attack and the seasonality of the injury were reported. Data was then statistically analysed for associations between injury and sociodemographic characteristics.
Results The incidence rate of fatal and non-fatal animal-related injuries across all ages were 0.7 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.4) and 1635.3 (95% CI 1612.0 to 1658.0) per 100 000 populations, respectively. Non-fatal animal-related injury rates were highest among adults 18 years and older (1820.6 per 100 000 population (1777.2 to 1865.1)), and in males across all age groups. The most common animal injury was wasp/hornet/bee sting (49%), followed by cow/buffalo (25%), dog bite (9%) and snake bites (9%).
Conclusions Animal-related injuries are an important public health issue in rural Bangladesh. The incidence of animal-related morbidities was found high in the study area. Males, school-going and productive age groups were at high risk. Immediate attention should be given to prevent these events.
- mortality and morbidity
- community survey
- rural Bangladesh
- animal injury
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Twitter @MD. Al-Amin Bhuiyan
Contributors AAB, OA, AR and PA conceived the paper, contributed to the data analysis and reviewed the final draft for intellectual content. AAB wrote the initial drafts of the manuscript. PA contributed to the data analysis and reviewed multiple drafts of the manuscript for intellectual content. SW, QL and FR reviewed the final draft of the manuscript for intellectual content. All co-authors provided editing support in finalising the manuscript. In addition, we would like to thank Eric Schulman, Communications Specialist of Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit for assistance with English language editing.
Funding This research was a part of the 'Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) in Bangladesh' project. We thank Bloomberg Philanthropies for the financial support for this research activity. We thank all the respondents of the study for providing their valuable time by participating in the interviews. Our special thanks to all the data collectors, supervisors and data managers for their hard work in collecting and managing data.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh and International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research, Bangladesh, under the study Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD), Bangladesh.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. Data are available upon reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.