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Self-reported health problems and obesity predict sickness absence during a 12-month follow-up: a prospective cohort study in 21 608 employees from different industries
  1. Minna Pihlajamäki1,2,
  2. Jukka Uitti1,3,
  3. Heikki Arola2,
  4. Jyrki Ollikainen4,
  5. Mikko Korhonen4,
  6. Tapio Nummi4,
  7. Simo Taimela5,6
  1. 1 Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
  2. 2 Terveystalo, Helsinki, Finland
  3. 3 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Tampere, Finland
  4. 4 Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
  5. 5 Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  6. 6 Evalua International, Helsinki, Finland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Simo Taimela; simo.taimela{at}helsinki.fi

Abstract

Objectives To study whether self-reported health problems predict sickness absence (SA) from work in employees from different industries.

Methods The results of a health risk appraisal (HRA) were combined with archival data of SA of 21 608 employees (59% female, 56% clerical). Exposure variables were self-reported health problems, labelled as ‘work disability (WD) risk factors’ in the HRA, presence of problems with occupational well-being and obesity. Age, socioeconomic grading and the number of SA days 12 months before the survey were treated as confounders. The outcome measure was accumulated SA days during 12-month follow-up. Data were analysed separately for males and females. A Hurdle model with negative binomial response was used to analyse zero-inflated count data of SA.

Results The HRA results predicted the number of accumulated SA days during the 12-month follow-up, regardless of occupational group and gender. The ratio of means of SA days varied between 2.7 and 4.0 among those with ‘WD risk factors’ and the reference category with no findings, depending on gender and occupational group. The lower limit of the 95% CI was at the lowest 2.0. In the Hurdle model, ‘WD risk factors’, SA days prior to the HRA and obesity were additive predictors for SA and/or the accumulated SA days in all occupational groups.

Conclusion Self-reported health problems and obesity predict a higher total count of SA days in an additive fashion. These findings have implications for both management and the healthcare system in the prevention of WD.

  • risk assessment
  • sickness absence
  • occupational health practice
  • health surveillance

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @k_pihlajamaki

  • Contributors MP, JU, HA, JO and ST participated in planning the study. MK and TN conducted the statistical analyses. MP and ST interpreted the results. MP and ST wrote the first draft of the manuscript and all authors have commented and approved the final manuscript as submitted.

  • Funding This work has been supported by Terveystalo, Evalua International and the University of Tampere.

  • Competing interests MP and HA are employed by Terveystalo, ST is employed by Evalua International and JU, JO, MK and TN are employed by the University of Tampere.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The Tampere University Research Ethics Board approved the study (ETL code R16074), and it was performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No additional data is available due to privacy reasons. The study is based on registry data and we do not have the participants' consent for making the data publicly available.

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