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All-cause mortality among young men 24–26 years after a lifestyle health dialogue in a Swedish primary care setting: a longitudinal follow-up register study
  1. Hans Lingfors1,2,
  2. Lars-Göran Persson1,2
  1. 1 Unit for Research and Development in Primary Health Care, Futurum, Jönköping, Sweden
  2. 2 Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hans Lingfors; hans.lingfors{at}


Objectives To compare mortality and socioeconomic status among men invited to a health dialogue with men from all of Sweden approximately 24 years after the start of the study, and to analyse the associations between lifestyle and all-cause mortality, incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.

Design Longitudinal follow-up register study of men 33–42 years old at baseline.

Setting Primary care in a community in Sweden.

Subjects All 757 men aged 33–42 years old in a community in southern Sweden, and 652 of these men who participated in a health examination between 1985 and 1987.

Interventions Health examination, lifestyle-directed health dialogue and group activities in primary care in cooperation with local associations.

Primary and secondary outcome measures All-cause mortality, income and educational level, and associations between lifestyle at baseline and all-cause mortality, incidence of CVD and cancer.

Results At follow-up, all-cause mortality was 29% lower (OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.95) among all men invited to the health dialogue compared with all men from the same age cohort in all of Sweden (intention-to-treat) and 43% lower (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.81) among participating men (on-treatment). A healthy lifestyle was associated with lower mortality (OR=0.16, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.36), with the strongest association for no smoking (OR=0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.68) and a healthy diet (OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68). A healthy lifestyle was also associated with a decreased incidence of CVD and cancer. There was a significantly higher proportion with short education among invited men compared with men from the same age cohort in all of Sweden.

Conclusions This study indicates that a combination of low-risk and high-risk strategies, combining a health examination with a lifestyle-directed health dialogue conducted in an ordinary primary care setting in cooperation with local associations, may have contributed to reduced premature mortality. However, we cannot exclude that there may be other factors explaining the lower mortality.

  • primary care
  • preventive medicine
  • mortality
  • life style
  • cardiovascular disease
  • health dialogue

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  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Contributors HL is the principal author and the main contributor to the design of the present study. He wrote and revised the paper. He wrote the statistical analysis plan, and cleaned and analysed the data. He is the guarantor. L-GP is responsible for the baseline study and has given valuable contributions to the design and has revised the manuscript of the present study. Both authors (HL and L-GP) had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of data analysis.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from FORSS (Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden) and Futurum County Council of Jönköping, Sweden.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The study received ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee at Linköping University, Sweden (Dnr A167-09). The participants have given informed consent to participate in the baseline study.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

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