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  1. Mohammad Hossein Amirzade-Iranaq1,2,
  2. Seyyed Mohammad Reza Masoumi1,2
  1. 1Student Research Committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  2. 2Iranian Evidence Based Medicine of Excellence, Tabriz, Iran.


Background and aims: Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a medication prescribed for hyperactive children known as ADHS disorder. But the rate of misuse of this drug among students is critical. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of misuse of methylphenidate among students of Iran.

Methods: Electronic search performed based on PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Web of Science for relevant studies and also hand-searching for recognizing non-indexed sources. English and Persian languages restriction included and only cross sectional studies entered to this study.

Data extraction: 28 articles found through databases searching and also 3 Additional records identified by hand-searching. After excluding of duplicates and studies not meeting inclusion criteria like knowledge attitude studies, at last 7 Full-text articles assessed for eligibility. Quality assessment of this study was executed by using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Because of high heterogeneity among this article we decided to ignore quantitative analysis and meta-analysis.

Results: The Prevalence of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) in studies were so different (5% to 43%) among students of Iran, But also the prevalence was significantly higher in men in all of studies. almost 30% of students use this drug at least one time during their life. The most time they used related to exams period and the most their reason was that it help them to more concentrate and enhance the cognition.

Conclusion: This study shows us the prevalence of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) misuse among students of Iran are so high and because of its side effects it could be an alarm for youth people in Iran. Increase the awareness about the use of methylphenidate are needed critically.

  • Cognitive enhancement
  • Methylphenidate
  • Ritalin
  • Prevalence
  • Students
  • Iran
  • Systematic Review.

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