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  1. Massoud Sokouti1,
  2. Peyman Rezaei2,
  3. Morteza Ghojazadeh3,
  4. Mohsen Sokouti4,
  5. Ramin Sadeghi1,
  6. Saeid Pashazadeh5,
  7. Saeid Eslami6
  1. 1Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  2. 2Department of Health Information Technology, School of Health Information Technology, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  3. 3Liver & Gastrointestinal Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  4. 4Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  5. 5Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
  6. 6Department of Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Background and aims: Bronchoscopy training based on virtual reality simulators are being used increasingly but effectiveness remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of published works on virtual reality bronchoscopy training.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for eligible articles from first of January 2000 to 15 May 2016. We included all original articles involving virtual reality Bronchoscopy training performed by flexible and rigid Bronchoscopy. Study selection and data abstraction were performed separately. Novices and experts were trained and comparisons of trained novices with novices (Group A), trained experts with experts (Group B), and trained novices with experts (Group C) were performed. Pooled results were analyzed by random effect meta-analysis.

Results: From an initial pool of 2831 articles (179 Scopus, 32 PubMed, and 2620 Google Scholar) we identified eight studies relating virtual reality Bronchoscopy training based on simulation. The results of forest plots of meta-analysis in group A is Hedge's g=1.038, SE=0.271, Z-value=3.825, P-value=0.000, and in group B is Hedge's g=0.820, SE=0.283, Z-value=2.928, P-value=0.003 and group C is Hedge's g=–0.652, SE=0.219, Z-value=–2.975, P-value=0.003. P-values of all Groups are significant and virtual reality training is effective in these groups. Heterogeneity and Egger's regression tests were also performed in all groups.

Conclusion: Virtual reality Bronchoscopy training based on simulation would help to improve technical skills if theoretical knowledge acquisition designed as a learning instrument. This meta-analysis assessment seems to be valid and reliable.

  • Virtual reality
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Training
  • Meta-analysis

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