Article Text

Download PDFPDF

  1. Babak Daneshfard1,2,3,
  2. Reza Sanaye3,
  3. Majid Nimrouzi1,2,3
  1. 1Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  2. 2Department of Traditional Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  3. 3Essence of Parsiyan Wisdom Institute, Phytopharmaceutical Technology and Traditional Medicine Incubator, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


When a paradigm starts to show signs of failure to cope with significant questions in any basic/applied branch of human knowledge, there come on the scene those who have perused the related literature enough to either answer those major questions according to the established paradigm or proffer a (wholly) new way of looking at things. In the latter case, the history of science tells us, a paradigm shift takes place. Modern medicine cannot be proven to be totally disconnected from its traditional roots. Where traditional medicine came to give its place to present-day conventional medicine, a number of humanistic aspects of healing in addition to some axioms of olden wisdom were actually lost. Employing a personalized strategy by taking into account the patient's specific conditions, Integrative Medicine (IM) endeavours to apply all appropriate interventions from a whole set of science branches to bring back health. However, this does not remain fully without its own challenges from almost all sides. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on the one hand, and: Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), on the other, have their own rightful say in the affair. Delving deep into the details of medical history's ups and downs, and examining –from the philosophy of medicine's and philosophy of science's standpoint– the pros and cons of integrative medicine, this present treatise makes a systemic, inter-disciplinary effort to put forward the best possible paradigmatology in a methodical way as far as the demands of society are concerned.

  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Evidence Based Medicine
  • Traditional Persian Medicine
  • Integrative Medicine
  • Person-Centered Care
  • Systems Biology
  • Biostatistics
  • Paradigm Shift

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.