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Prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study
  1. Jing Cui1,
  2. Ji-Ping Ren1,
  3. Dong-Ning Chen1,
  4. Zhong Xin2,
  5. Ming-Xia Yuan2,
  6. Jie Xu3,
  7. Qi-Sheng You3,
  8. Jin-Kui Yang2
  1. 1 Department of Physical Examination, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  2. 2 Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  3. 3 Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr. Jin-Kui Yang; jkyang{at}


Objectives The study aimed to determine the exact risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Chinese population using a cohort of 17  985 individuals from Beijing, China.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Setting A hospital.

Participants 17  985 individuals from Beijing, China.

Primary and secondary outcome measures This was a cross-sectional study of permanent residents from the Changping area (Beijing, China) recruited from July 2010 to March 2011 and from March 2014 to February 2015 during a routine health examination at the Tongren Hospital of Beijing. Eye examinations were conducted by experienced ophthalmologists. Medical history, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were recorded. Routine laboratory examinations were performed.

Results The prevalence of DR was 1.5% in the general study population and 8.1% among individuals with diabetes. Compared with the non-DR group, individuals in the DR group in the diabetes population had longer disease duration, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and uric acid (UA) (in men) and lower UA (in women) (all p<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that disease duration (p<0.001), BMI (p=0.046), SBP (p=0.012), creatinine clearance rate (CCR) (p=0.014), UA (p=0.018) and FPG (p<0.001) were independently associated with DR in patients with diabetes.

Conclusion The prevalence of DR was 8.1% among patients with diabetes. Disease duration, BMI, SBP, CCR, UA and FPG were independently associated with DR.

  • China
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • fundus examination
  • risk factors
  • prevalence

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  • Contributors JC and JKY contributed to conception and design; JC, JPR, DNC, ZX, MXY, JX, QSY and JKY contributed to acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; JC, JPR, DNC, ZX, MXY, JX, QSY and JKY were involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; all authors gave final approval of the version to be published.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (8151101058) and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (D171100002817005) to JKY.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics committee of the Tongren Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Technical appendix, statistical code and dataset are available from the corresponding author.

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